Adaptive materials: devices and systems towards unconventional computing, sensing, bio-electronics and robotics
Adaptive materials are strategic for bio-inspired systems, capable of parallel processing, learning and decision making that is for unconventional computing. The symposium covers all related materials and interfaces issues in particular with reference to biological benchmarks, neuromorphic computational paradigms and bio-electronics.
In the challenging and fast growing field of unconventional computing the integration and optimization of materials properties, design and fabrication of devices and systems and modelling are becoming more and more relevant to the advances and perspective of the field. A major novel aspect that is being proposed for the first time by the symposium is the perspective of integrating competences coming from the world of sensing (in particular bio-sensing and bio-electronics) with the one of memristive devices and systems together with that of unconventional computing. The exchange of recent achievements, knowhow and challenges in the different disciplines that should contribute, is at the core of the aims of the symposium. The focus will be mainly on Memristive materials (both inorganics and organics), devices and systems, capable of learning and decision making, together with related aspects of unconventional computing concerning robotics, the integration with biological systems, bio-electronics and neurosciences. The symposium will establish a tight feedback between theoretical and experimental scientists aiming at better understanding of results and paving the way to further developments from both the materials science and technology point of views .
The organizers feel that this is a particularly stimulating intersections of very stimulating questions where the intercrossing of competences coming from worlds that have had little contacts up to know may be particularly fruitful and where bio-mimicking and bio-inspired approaches could be particularly promising aiming at stimulating projects based on converging sciences and technologies.
The material aspects will concern the composition (organic, inorganic, biological) and experimental methods of the realization of all types of single devices and networks. The involvement of the industrial participants (chairing round tables) will underline necessary actions helping the realization of commercial prototypes of the devices and systems. The only previous conference on memristive devices was organized within E-MRS 2014 spring meeting. There were about 100 participants and large interest from participants of other symposia. The present proposed symposium widens and refocus the aims and topics expecting to become a real forum that will allow a breakthrough in the improvement of the elements and networks composition, as well as methods of realization. The symposium will give novel opportunities for young scientists to improve their educational level in this cross-disciplinary field. We plan to organize at least 3 sessions, dedicated to the on-going European projects, stimulating the formation of new international teams for the European Horizon 2020 program and for other International collaborations.
Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:
The symposium will be divided in sessions, dedicated to special topics:
- Inorganic, organic and bio inspired adaptive materials and devices;
- Neuromorphic memristive networks and systems;
- Modeling of nervous system and brain function;
- Chemical and bio-inspired computing;
- Neuron networks;
- Memristive systems for biosensors, bio-electronics and robots.
At the end of the symposium we plan to organize a round table with the invitation of industry representatives for the discussion of theory-experiment relations and feedback, as well as perspectives of the industrial realization of prototypes, discussed during the symposium.
List of confirmed scientific committee members:
- Andrew Adamatzky – University of the West England (UK)
- Theodoros Zanos - Montreal Neurological Institute (Canada)
- Bert Nickel - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (Germany)
- Sandro Carrara - EPFL (Switzerland)
- Viktor Jirsa - Aix-Marseille Université (France)
- Zoran Konkoli - Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden)
List of confirmed invited speakers:
- Massimiliano Di Ventra, University of California (USA)
- Dominique Vuillaume, CNRS, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (France)
- Mirko Prezioso, University of California (USA)
- Randy Mcntosh, Rotman Research Institute (Canada)
- John Boland, Trinity Coolege Dublin (Ireland).
The materials of the symposium will be published in AIP advances.
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Authors : Salvatore Iannotta
Affiliations : Salvatore Iannotta, CNR-IMEM, Parma, Italy; George Malliaras, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, Gardanne, France; Luca ASCARI, Henesis CAMLIN Limited, Parma, Italy; Petra RITTER, Research Group Brain Modes Department of Neurology Charité, Berlin, Germany
Resume : Introduction to Symposium B: Adaptive materials: devices and systems towards unconventional computing, sensing, bio-electronics and robotics
Authors : Salvatore Iannotta
Affiliations : CNR-IMEM, Parma, Italy
Resume : Introductory remarks
Authors : Dominique Vuillaume
Affiliations : IEMN, CNRS and Univ. Lille, Av. Poincaré, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Resume : I discuss memristive and synaptic devices made of a mixture of molecules and metal nanoparticles. I review an organic synapse-transistor (synapstor) working at 1 volt, with a typical response time of ca. 100 ms. This device exhibits short-term plasticity (STP) and spike-time dependent plasticity (STDP) [1,2]. These synaptic behaviors are used in adaptive and learning computing circuits . I will also present an electrolyte-gated organic synapstors (EGOS) working at very low voltage (50 mV) interfaced with biological neurons . Then, I present NPSAN (nanoparticle self-assembled network) devices, made of a monolayer of Au nanoparticles (NPs) linked by molecules. Photochromic molecules NPSANs exhibit large conductance switching behavior upon light illumination . Connected to sub 100 nm multi-electrodes devices, this NPSANs show optically-driven reconfigurable Boolean operations associated to the light controlled switching of the molecules . Redox molecule NPSANs exhibit giant NDR (negative differential resistance) and memory effect . I discuss how these NPSANs can be tentatively used in reconfigurable circuits with leaning capability.  F. Alibart et al., Adv. Func. Mater. 20, 330,2010; Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 609, 2012  S. Desbief et al., Organic Electron. 21, 47, 2015  O. Bichler et al., Neural Computation 25, 549, 2013  S. Desbief et al., submitted  Y. Viero et al. J. Phys. Chem C. 119, 21173, 2015  Y. Viero et al., submitted  T. Zhang et al., submitted Financial support from EU (FET projects "SYMONE" and "I-ONE") and ANR (project "SYNAPTOR").
Authors : Roberto Verucchi (a), Giovanni Giusti (a), Giacomo Baldi (b), Matteo Bosi (b), Valentina Prusakova (c), Sandra Dirè (c), Cristian Collini (d), Leandro Lorenzelli (d), Alessio Paris (d), Simone Taioli (d), Laura Pasquardini (d), Cecilia Pederzolli (d)
Affiliations : a) Istituto dei Materiali per l?Elettronica e il Magnetismo, IMEMCNR, Sede secondaria di Trento, Via alla Cascata 56/C 38123 Povo (TN), Italy b) Istituto dei Materiali per l'Elettronica e il Magnetismo, IMEMCNR, Parma, Viale Usberti 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy) c) Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy d) Bruno Kessler Foundation FBK, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy
Resume : The promising properties of inorganic memristor could be a breakthrough for the realization of nanoscaled devices for memory storage and towards bio-mimicking adaptive electronics. However, reliability and reproducibility of these devices are still low and must be solved by growth of properly tailored materials. In this work, we propose different techniques to synthesize metal oxides-based films. Sol-gel has shown to be a versatile tool to control material chemical composition, thickness, film architecture. By Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS), nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films can be grown at room temperature with variable stoichiometry. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) led to film with extremely high uniformity and controlled thickness. By exploiting the different peculiar characteristics of synthesized films, memristors have been realized, also in form of crossbar array, simple logical devices towards definition of a single layer perceptron. Materials morphology, chemical/physical and electronic properties have been studied to understand the mechanisms leading to the observed memristive effect. To this end, models for TiO2 electronic and transport properties have been proposed by theoretical studies. Finally, envisaging the achievement of an active inorganic/organic tissue device, we investigated the biocompatibility of metal oxides film. This work has been developed within the MaDEleNA project (PAT, Grandi Progetti).
Authors : F.M. Puglisi (1), P. Pavan (1), E. Perez (2) and Ch. Wenger (2)
Affiliations : (1) Dipartimento di Ingegneria Enzo Ferrari, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena 41125, Italy. (2) IHP GmbH, Leibniz Institute for Innovative Microelectronics, 15236 Frankfurt / Oder, Germany.
Resume : A typical neuromorphic system is based on neuron circuits and synapses. Hence, challenges for hardware implementation of neuromorphic systems are strictly related to the development of an electronic device properly acting as a synapse, exhibiting characteristics such as ultra-high integration density and ultra-low power consumption. Recently, resistive switching devices are being explored as a replacement to conventional CMOS-based memories due to their compact dimensions, compatibility with the CMOS process, high-speed and low-power consumption. Hence, they potentially exhibit the desirable characteristics for an electronic synaptic element. The key challenge lies in the application-oriented optimization of resistive switching devices, which requires a systematic physical/electrical characterization of the devices. The potential use of resistive switching devices for neuromorphic applications will require an accurate study of the switch?s reliability, both at device and system levels, including degradation and variability issues, which have to be accounted for to develop a reliable electronic synaptic element. The key element of these devices is the switching oxide (HfO2) which can be switched between two states (high- and low- resistance states). However, suitable electric pulses can modulate the device resistance also in intermediate resistive states, allowing synaptic-like behavior. Nevertheless the intrinsic randomness involved in the switching mechanisms hinders the precise control of the resistive states, which requires introducing dedicated programming algorithms. We will present a new dispersion-aware program-verify algorithm for HfO2 based resistive switching devices. It exploits the intrinsically stochastic response of resistive switching devices to achieve an optimal control of resistance values. It allows reliable multi-bit operation with no failures and optimized programming time, while displaying the unique properties of failure resilience and adaptability to degradation.
Authors : Dawit G. Ayana(1), Valentina Prusakova(1), Riccardo Ceccato(1), Cristian Collini(2), Leandro Lorenzelli(2), Andrea Chiappini(3), Alessandro Chiasera(3), Maurizio Ferrari(3), Lorenzo Lunelli(4), Sandra Dirè(1)
Affiliations : (1)Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy; (2)FBK, CMM - MICROSYSTEMS, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy; (3)CNR-IFN, CSMFO Lab., Via Alla Cascata 56/C, 38123 Trento, Italy; (4)FBK, LaBSSAH, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy
Resume : Sol-gel route is a versatile method to fabricate multi-layer, dense and homogeneous ZnO thin films with controlled thickness and stoichiometry for memristive application. In this work, sol-gel derived multi-layer ZnO thin films were prepared by spin coating technique on a variety of substrates from an alcoholic solution of zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) and monoethanolamine (MEA). Structural and morphological features as well as the thermal behavior of the samples were investigated by complementary techniques including electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The appropriate curing and annealing conditions were selected to produce organic-free crystalline ZnO thin films. Electrical measurements were performed on SiO2/Ti/Pt/ZnO/Ag-dishes fabricated memristive cell and preliminary memristive response was acquired. Doping with Al was found to modify the morphological features of ZnO films. The effect of these features toward the improvement of memristive switching performance and other comprehensive characterizations will be discussed.
Authors : S.Battistoni,V. Erokhin
Affiliations : IMEM-CNR and University of Parma; IMEM-CNR
Resume : A memristor, term used for the first time by Leon O. Chua in 1971, is a passive device whose resistance depends on the charge that was passed through it. Organic memristive devices are based on the redox reactions that a channel of conductive polymers (Polyaniline (PANI)) undergoes when in contact with a solid electrolyte. In the past, our group showed that a simple circuit of memristors presents synapse (hetero and homo) mimicking properties of a pond snail. In the present work, a new type of organic memristive device is presented and evidences of hetero synapse learning are provided. Two thin layers of PANI are deposited with Langmuir- Schaeffar technique, onto a glass support with two chrome electrodes each. Every stripe of conductive polymer was fabricated by the stacking of 60 monolayers of PANI ( around 100nm). Then a strip of solid electrolyte (a water solution of Polyethylene oxide and lithium perchlorate) was deposited crossing both layers of PANI and two silver wires were inserted in it as reference electrodes (connected to the ground). Two different voltages were applied to the PANI stripes: one works as a reading value and the other one works as a modulatory voltage. The common polyelectrolyte works as bridge for ions inducing the crosstalk phenomenon between the two PANI layers. This latter effect ensures that this new geometry of memristor simulates the hetero synaptic plasticity without the necessary of a more complex circuit.
Authors : Victor Erokhin
Affiliations : CNR-IMEM, Parma, Italy KFU-RASA research center, Kazan, Russia
Resume : Explosively increasing activity in the field of neuromorphic circuits (including artificial hardware realization of neural networks) has been started in 2008, when the paper on the finding of the missed memristor  of L. Chua  was reported. Even if the basic principle of the ideal memristor is rather questionable , the suggested concept has initiated revival of works in the hardware realization of artificial neuron networks. Before 2008, the activity in this field was already present, even if without using the term “memristor”. In particular, inorganic devices were referred as “resistance switching memory elements” , while for the organic devices the term “electrochemical element for the adaptive networks” was used . In this work, we will consider and compare several neuromorphic circuits, realized with organic and inorganic memory switching devices, underlining strong and weak points of each of them. In particular, we will make a comparison of logic elements, circuits, mimicking a function of parts of nervous systems of living beings (Pavlov’s dog; pond snail), chaotic oscillating systems, different realizations of perceptron. 1. D.B. Strukov, et al., Nature, 453, 80 (2008). 2. L.O. Chua, IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory, 18, 507 (1971). 3. S. Vongehr and X. Meng, Sci. Rep., 5, 11657 (2015). 4. R. Waser and M. Aono, Nature Materials, 6, 833 (2007). 5. V. Erokhin, T. Berzina, and M.P. Fontana, J. Appl. Phys., 97, 064501 (2005).
Authors : Yu-Pu. Lin, Christopher H. Bennett, Damir Vodenicarevic, Djaafar Chabi, Damian Querlioz, Théo Cabaret, Adrian Balan, Bruno Jousselme, Christian Gamrat, Jacques-Olivier Klein, Vincent Derycke
Affiliations : LICSEN, NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France ; Université Paris-Sud, IEF (UMR CNRS 8622), F-91405 Orsay, France ; Laboratoire d’intégration de systèmes et de technologies (LIST), CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191, France
Resume : Neuromorphic computing is an efficient way to handle complex tasks such as image recognition and classification. Hardware implementation of an artificial neural network (ANN) requires arrays of scalable memory elements to act as artificial synapses. Memristors, which are two-terminal analog memory devices, are excellent candidates for this application as their tunable resistance could be used to code and store synaptic weights. We studied metal-organic-metal memristors in which the organic layer is a dense and robust electro-grafted thin film of redox complexes. The process allows fabricating planar and vertical junctions, as well as small crossbar arrays. The unipolar devices display non-volatile multi-level conductivity states with high Rmax/Rmin ratio and two thresholds. We characterized in depth the characteristics of individual memristors with respect to the targeted synaptic function. We notably showed that they possess the Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP) property (their conductivity evolves as a function of the time-delay between incoming pulses at both terminals), which is critical for future applications in neuromorphic circuits based on unsupervised learning. In parallel, we implemented memristors as synapses in a simple prototype: a mixed circuit with the neuron implemented with conventional electronics. This ANN is able to learn linearly separable 3-input logic functions through an iterative supervised learning algorithm inspired by the Widrow-Hoff rule.
Authors : S. Erokhina, M.A. Lagarkova, S.L. Kiselev, V. Erokhin
Affiliations : Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia; Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Clinical Research Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine, Federal Biomedical Agency; Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Italian National Council of Researches, Parma, Italy
Resume : Interfacing parts of nervous system with electronic devices is a very important task as it can provide breakthroughs in several branches of fundamental and applied science: general principles of the brain function, information exchange between neurons and computer, direct neural prosthetics, etc. Memristors, new discovered electronic component, begin to attract a wide attention for the interfacing with living beings, as they have several features, essential for the nervous systems and absent in currently available computers, namely, they combine memory and processing functions. In this regard, the interfacing of these elements with biological objects will not meet a principal difference in the information processing approaches. Organic memristor devices seem to be the best candidates for this interfacing as they can be fabricated by self-assembling technique, allowing to have a large variety of end layers in a contact with living cells thus comprising chimeric brain unit. In this work we have used human neurons as a biological counterpart. We present here the results of the first phase of the study, where we have analyzed an effect of the conducting layer composition and architecture on the cells growth.
Authors : Tatiana Berzina1, Angelica Cifarelli2, Victor Erokhin1
Affiliations : 1 CNR-IMEM (National Council of the Researches, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism), Parco Area delle Scienze 37A, 43124, Parma, Italy. 2 Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of Parma, Viale Usberti 7A, 43124, Parma, Italy
Resume : Organic memristive devices are considered as promising elements for interfacing with biological objects . However, it requires the use of materials allowing biocompatibility. As the material of the active channel cannot be seriously modified (some derivatives of polyaniline), our activity was concentrated on the utilization of bio-compatible polyelectrolyte ? essential element of the organic memristor. Two biocompatible polymers were studied: chitosan and pectin. Both of them were found to be suitable for the formation of electrolyte layer. Characteristics of the fabricated devices revealed both hysteresis and rectification, what is essential for the realization of neuromorphic systems, where memristors play a role of synapses. Important finding was connected to the improved stability of the devices. However, working mechanism seems to be different from that with polyethylene oxide doped with lithium salts . Understanding of this mechanism is a subject of the on-going study. Significant improvement of the device properties was reached when using double-layer electrolyte containing pectin-polyethylene oxide heterostructure.
Authors : Jessamyn A. Fairfield, Claudia Gomes da Rocha, Colin O’Callaghan, Mauro S. Ferreira, John J. Boland
Affiliations : Jessamyn A. Fairfield (School of Chemistry & Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland); Claudia Gomes da Rocha (School of Physics & Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland); Colin O’Callaghan(School of Physics & Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland); Mauro S. Ferreira(School of Physics & Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland); John J. Boland (School of Chemistry & Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland)
Resume : Nanowire networks are being investigated as self-healing transparent conductors, whose sheet resistance can be tuned via an externally applied voltage stimulus. This memristive response is due to modification of junction resistances to form a connectivity path across the lowest barrier junctions in the network. While most network studies have been performed on expensive noble metal nanowires like silver, networks of inexpensive nickel nanowires with a nickel oxide coating can also demonstrate resistive switching, a common feature of metal oxides with filamentary conduction. However, networks made from solely nickel nanowires have high operation voltages which prohibit large-scale material applications. Here we show, using both experiment and simulation, that a heterogeneous network with both nickel and silver nanowires allows optimization of the network sheet resistance, activation voltage, and tuning of the conduction behavior to be either resistive switching, memristive, or a combination of both. Small percentages of silver nanowires, below the percolation threshold, are needed to see this change, even in relatively sparse (and hence maximally transparent) networks. These results demonstrate that a heterogeneous nanowire network can act as a cost-effective transparent conductor with minimal use of noble metal nanowires, without losing memristive behaviour which could be used to implement smart sensing and neuromorphic computation.
Authors : S. Caponi (1), S.Mattana (2), M. Ricci (2,3), K.Cagini (2) L. J. Juarez-Hernandez (3), N. Cornella (4), L. Pasquardini (5), S. Battistoni (6), M. Dalla Serra (3), Pederzolli (5), P. Macchi (4), C. Musio (3)
Affiliations : 1. Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM) - Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via Pascoli, Perugia, Italy 2. Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia,Via Elce di sotto 8, 06123 Perugia, Italy 3. Istituto di Biofisica CNR (IBF-CNR), Unità di Trento, & FBK, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy 4. Centre for Integrative Biology (CIBIO), Università di Trento, Via delle Regole 101, 38123 Trento, Italy. 5. Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy. 6. Istituto dei Materiali per l'Elettronica ed il Magnetismo, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IMEM-CNR), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
Resume : The interfacing of arti?cial devices with biosystems is a challenging ?eld that crosses several disciplines ranging from fundamental research to frontier technological application. Memristors favour applications in signal processing and brain?computer interactions and represent a new frontier in bioelectronics. Using multidisciplinary approaches, we successfully implemented a living bio-hybrid system constituted by cells adhering to ?lms of poly(aniline) (PANI) a semiconductor polymer with memristive properties. Here, i) we analysed the surface chemical and morphological properties of the deposited polymeric films to establish the appropriate surface features for a stable cellular binding;ii) we tested whether the PANI devices could support survivor, adhesion and differentiation of several cell lines, including the neuron-like SHSY5Y cells ;iii) we performed electrophysiology on these cells showing that the bioelectrical activity is not affected . The results are compared with a Raman spectroscopy investigation  able to characterize the status of the single cell and its local biochemical composition. The modi?cations induced by the substrate interaction are analysed and our data confirm that the PANI films do not strongly affect the general biochemical and biophysical properties of the cells. Tests are in progress using organic PEDOT and inorganic TiO2 surfaces as artificial component of the bio-hybrid. This work is supported by the ?Madelena? project Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy .  L.J. Juarez-Hernandez et al. Biophys. Chem. 208 (2016) 40?47  S. Caponi et al. Biophys. Chem. 208 (2016) 48-53
Authors : Fernando Corinto
Affiliations : Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Politecnico di Torino Torino, Italy
Resume : Several memristor-based circuits and systems have been proposed to realize analog and/or digital systems (e.g. amplifiers, filters, oscillators, logic gates and memristor as synapses, neuromorphic systems). Such applications are based on the key properties of memristor devices: (a) the fine-resolution programming of the memristance, tuned by the input amplitude, pulse width and frequency, in memristor acting as a non-volatile memory; (b) the inherent nonlinear dynamic behavior in memristor acting as a volatile memory. A complete and precise classification of memristor, including memcapacitor and meminductors as well, is crucial to: - link the parameters of mathemathical models to physical phenomena - boost applications of memristors in unconventional computing systems. The aim of the contribution is to provide a theoretical framework to describe the various classes of mem?devices (i.e. memristors, memcapacitors and meminductors) as nonlinear dynamical systems whose characteristic curves are pinched at the origin when driven by bipolar excitations. This theory provides a practical tool to describe mem?devices developed for non?volatile memory applications and neuromorphic systems.
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Authors : Luca Ascari
Affiliations : Henesis CAMLIN Limited Strada Budellungo 2 43123 Parma Italy
Resume : Introductory remarks
Authors : Mirko Prezioso
Affiliations : University of California at Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.A.
Resume : The search for brain-inspired solutions is driven by the need for architectures able to reach new levels of computing efficiency in tasks like data clustering and image recognition. The Brain represents a massively parallel and event-based system able to reduce the energy consumption by many order of magnitude in the aforementioned tasks. For this reason, investments in Neuromorphic Computation are gaining momentum, in particular toward the research for the specialized hardware that will enable the true exploitation of a brain-inspired architecture. The common major challenge in building artificial neural networks is efficient vector-by-matrix multiplication, which in turn requires compact implementation of synaptic weights. Classic CMOS-based circuits are insufficient for meeting these challenges, mainly because CMOS-implemented synapses are excessively large. One promising solution stems from the use of hybrid circuits combining the existing CMOS integrated circuits with crossbar add-ons using memristive devices. Such devices are able to process information in analog form, mimicking the basic biological synapse dynamics and strongly reducing the required area. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent progresses in both experimental realization of basic Neural Networks and simulations, grounded on experimental data, of scaled-up networks based on memristive crossbars. Limits and future challenges of such approach will also be presented.
Authors : V.A. Demin, V.V. Erokhin, A.V. Emelyanov, D.A. Lapkin, S. Battistoni, G. Baldi, A. Dimonte, P.K. Kashkarov, M.V. Kovalchuk
Affiliations : National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute", 123182, Moscow, Russia; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russia; CNR-IMEM (National Research Council, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism) and University of Parma, Viale Usberti 7A, 42124, Parma, Italy; Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 119991, Moscow, Russia
Resume : There are a lot of challenges and efforts but still few attempts on the hardware realization of neuromorphic networks (NN) with special super-parallel architecture (neurochips). Their undeniable advantages are the lower power consumption, higher performance and lower weight and size characteristics in comparison with software simulation of such systems at the computers with standard von Neumann architecture. The key elements of any neural network are neurons and synapses. The element base of neurons is well developed by terms of standard CMOS technology, and it is available commercially. There are different types of devices which can act as the analogue of synapses modelling the property of a long-term synaptic plasticity. Some of them are the static random access memory (SRAM) cells, floating gate transistors, and memristors. The last have an advantage of potentially higher energy efficiency, larger possible density on chip, and what is the most important, an analogue range of weights (characterizing signal transfer efficiency between neurons) which is more biologically plausible than binary or digital set of weight values. There were few works on the hardware realization of single-layer NN [1-3]. However, up to our knowledge, there is no successful attempt of multilayer NN hardware building with the use of memristors as the synapses. In the work we suggest the experiment with the physical realization of a double-layer perceptron based on organic (polyaniline) memristive devices. Perceptron is an artificial neural network which can classify the objects by the categories to which they belong. Multi-layer unlike single-layer perceptron can solve linearly non-separable tasks, i.e. the tasks which cannot be separated by hyper-plane in the space of their features (which is also an input space of the perceptron). We built a simple double-layer NN and showed the possibility of its physical learning to perform the XOR task. Also, it was numerically demonstrated that our perceptron can solve principally analogue task which cannot be reached by totally digital device. The obtained results prove the potential possibility to build the multilayer NN with the use of memristors, which can open a roadmap to neurochip designing for a majority of different intellectual applications. The work was partialy supported by RSCF (project 16-13-00052) and RFBR (project 15-29-01324). The experiments were partially performed on the facility of resource centre Electrophysical methods (Kurchatov Complex NBICS-technologies).  V.A. Demin, V.V. Erokhin, A.V. Emelyanov, S. Battistoni, G. Baldi, S. Iannotta, P.K. Kashkarov, M.V. Kovalchuk, Organic Electronics 25 (2015) 16.  M. Prezioso, F. Merrikh-Bayat, B.D. Hoskins, G.C. Adam, K.K. Likharev, D.B. Strukov, Nature 521 (2015) 61.  F. Alibart, E. Zamanidoost, D.B. Strukov, Nat. Commun. 4 (2013) 2072.
Authors : Selina La Barbera, Adrien Vincent, Dominique Vuillaume, Damien Querlioz and Fabien Alibart
Affiliations : Selina La Barbera, Dominique Vuillaume, Fabien Alibart: IEMN-CNRS, bd Poincarré, Villenuve d'Ascq 59652, FRANCE; Adrien Vincent, Damien Querlioz: Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay cedex, France
Resume : Among unconventional computing solutions developed today, neuromorphic computing appears has a promising direction. Engineering computing systems inspired by the brain could be an efficient solution for low power processing of unstructured data. In this work we present how emerging memory devices belonging to electrochemical metallization (ECM) cells can reproduce key features observed in biological synapses. By controlling the stability of the filament, we show how short term to long term transition reported previously in this class of memory devices  can be efficiently used for unsupervised learning function implementation. A variation of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) is demonstrated based on a detail analysis of the switching dynamics. In addition to STDP, we show how filament dynamics can reproduce conveniently Spike Rate Dependent Plasticty (SRDP) observed in biological synapses and how STDP and SRDP can both be conveniently controlled in ECM cells. We demonstrate by a modeling approach how these features can be used for spike-based computing tasks: we report on a dynamic motion task learning in small sized neuromorphic network composed of a fully connected 9*9 input and 10 output neurons.  S. La Barbera et al., ACS Nano, 9 (1), pp 941–949, 2015
Authors : Alice Dimonte, Agostino Romeo, Giuseppe Tarabella, Pasquale D'Angelo, Tatiana Berzina, Victor Erokhin
Affiliations : Istituto dei Materiali per Elettronica e Magnetismo IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma, Italy
Resume : Since their prediction, memristive devices revolutionized the world of computing and nowadays they have been widely considered as promising candidate for mimicking synapses. In particular, organic-based memristors allow the construction of circuits capable of learning. Physarum Polycephalum (PP), a unicellular organism made by a miriad of nuclei dispersed in a cytoplasm, is well suited for the implementation of the functional properties of smart living systems into electronic devices. Here, we presents the characteristics of an hybrid memristor developed by interfacing a channel of (PEDOT:PSS), with PP. The device has memristive features resulting by electrochemical changes occurring into the polymer upon application of anodic potentials across the semiconducting PEDOT:PSS channel. We built a three-terminal device where PP is used as electrolyte and the gate electrode, placed in it, is kept at zero-bias and used as a controlling, silent electrode. The realized device is stable and its characteristics are reversible in the voltage range less than the over-oxidation potential; moreover, it showed memory effects induced by electrochemical changes occurring into the polymer. The device can be accounted as an element with properties similar to those of synapses, useful to implement bio-inspired computation. . Further steps will provide an integral response to Physarum?s metabolism as a consequence of environmental variations.
Authors : Rawan Naous, khaled Nabil Salama
Affiliations : King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
Resume : Conventional computing systems are facing severe limitations due to the increasing demands on data and processing potentials. Hence, the current challenge is to realize a new computing paradigm that is up to the stringent requirements of today’s applications. Particularly in terms of interpreting the perceived data and learning from it to solve unfamiliar problems. Inspired by the operation of the human brain, from the dimensionality, energy and underlying functionalities, neuromorphic systems are building upon circuit elements to mimic the neuro-biological activities. In abstract terms, the brain is mapped into its corresponding building blocks of neurons and synapses along with their corresponding interactions. Several circuit designs are available either to act as a close resemblance to the philological elements and their behavior or as a mere abstraction of the operation principles in an event based manner. However, adhering to the size and energy constraints along with the extensive scaling witnessed in the CMOS technology, emerging non-volatile memory technologies are rising up as suitable alternatives to conventional designs. Resistive Random Access Memories (ReRAM), in particular is a prominent candidate and has been integrated into several neuromorphic platforms. In its original operation form, with a continuous change of resistance upon input excitation, it has found diverse venues as analog synapses and neuronal elements. On the other hand, with the threshold-based devices, more abstract implementations are available benefiting mainly from a binary operation with the high (R_OFF) and low (R_ON) resistance values. Nonetheless, an intriguing feature of variability is apparent in the operation of the brain, where biological noise has been proven to be quite beneficial for the learning, information processing and decision making. Incorporating this stochasticity characteristic into the neural network operation is mainly narrowed down into having either the neuron or the synapse behaving in a nondeterministic manner. Traditionally, stochasticity is added into the neural networks through injected background noise into the circuit. However, recent studies on the material characteristics of the memristive elements have shown a high predisposition of variable behavior. It is due to the underlying switching mechanism between the ON and OFF states. Electron hopping principles and sub-threshold switching allow for a stochastic formation of a dominant conducting filament and subsequently the variable operation of the memristor. The switching process was found to follow a Poisson process that is akin to the firing of the neuronal element. In that regards, we proposed the use of the stochastic memristor as an inherent source of variability in the neuron that allows it to produce spikes stochastically. From the circuit perspective, the memristor, with its variable threshold, acted as a stochastic comparator and allowed for a more area and power efficient implementation of the neuron. It replaced the random number generator for the injected noise along with the operational amplifier in earlier designs. The proposed design was put further to the test with a Winner-take-all neural network. The stochastic memristive neurons were set as the input and output layers and MNIST hand written digits were used as the input data set for image recognition and learning application. The network performance showed high accuracy ranges and robustness to several characteristic metrics variation. An alternative approach to having stochasticity induced into the neural network is through having stochastic synapses; a feature where the communication channels between the neurons are not behaving in a deterministic manner. An approach we also investigated through the incorporation of stochastic memristors in a crossbar structure and building on the random switching between its two binary values. The synaptic weight was variably set to either an ON or OFF state according to the corresponding value of the memristor.The proposed solution was put to test in a Winner-take-all network as well with digit images used as the input data. SPICE level simulations showed high accuracy in the recognition and learning phases as well. Where the synapses adapted to the input patterns and the neurons were selectively firing to specific patterns rather than random sets. In comparison between the two proposed schemes, the stochastic neurons approach builds on non-memristive deterministic synapses. Furthermore, the synaptic weights are analog, in a sense where they can vary in a multi-level fashion based on the learning rule applied and depending on the resolution of the corresponding circuit implementation. In contrast to our earlier approach, the memristor is the source of stochasticity in the synapses while having deterministic neurons at the input and output levels. The synaptic weights are also confined and abstracted into two levels only. Aside from the size and area perspective, the impact on the system performance, in terms of accuracy, recognition rates, and learning, among these two approaches and where the memristor would fall into place are the main comparison points to be considered.
Authors : Adnan Mehonic Anthony J Kenyon
Affiliations : Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering - University College London
Resume : In recent years, formidable effort has been devoted to exploring the potential of Resistive RAM (RRAM) devices to model key features of biological synapses. This is done to strengthen the link between neuro-computing architectures and neuroscience, bearing in mind the extremely low power consumption and immense parallelism of biological systems. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using the RRAM cell to go further and to model aspects of the electrical activity of the neuron. We focus on the specific operational procedures required for the generation of controlled voltage transients, which resemble spike-like responses. Further, we demonstrate that RRAM devices are capable of integrating input current pulses over time to produce thresholded voltage transients. We show that the frequency of the output transients can be controlled by the input signal, and we relate recent models of the redox-based nanoionic resistive memory cell to two common neuronal models, the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) conductance model and the leaky integrate-and-fire model.
Authors : Curtis J. O'Kelly, Yasmin Halawani, Baker Mohammad
Affiliations : Khalifa University of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Resume : Neuromorphic Response in Pt/NbO Wire Arrays Using Continuum Resistance for Greyscale Image Recognition. Curtis J. O’Kelly, Yasmin Halawani, Baker Mohammad Khalifa University of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Abstract: Bio-inspired devices with adaptive and changeable properties in response to input stimuli present many advantages over conventional static digital silicon based technologies. The ability to compute, process and retain information in parallel without referencing other circuit elements offers enhanced speed, size and functionality benefits. One promising emerging application for bio-inspired neuromorphic devices is in image and pattern recognition . The building blocks of this technology benefit from the memristor’s non-volatility and gradual change in conductivity. Conductance tuning over a dynamic range of synaptic weights in response to voltage pulses emulates the biological synapse and can be developed into a true bio-inspired device. In this paper a neuromorphic Pt/NbO nanojunction is presented as the building block for an adaptive synaptic array. The junction is composed of an Nb wire annealed to create a thin oxide layer shell, a Pt wire completes the device and facilitates the dynamic resistance response. The properties of a single junction are similar to that of a multilevel resistance memristor . An individual junction displays continuum resistance levels with analogue current response. Initially the conductivity is low in the nA range (Glow) but can be tuned through the application of voltage pulses to achieve a large range of conductivity levels between 10-100 times Glow. The continuum of conductivity states between Glow and Ghigh are accessible through either altering the voltage input amplitude or the pulse timing width. By exploiting this device property there are many potential neuromorphic applications the single junction could enable. Data is presented on the repeatability and robustness of accessing the continuum of resistance levels in a single junction. The memristive relationship between current response and voltage flux pulses is explored for different voltage pulse shapes, timing and amplitude. In theory, equal amount of voltage flux should produce the same current response from a voltage controlled memristor . In the Pt/NbO junctions presented here, equivalent flux from different voltage pulse shapes (square, triangle and sine waveforms, 4 Volts ~ Vamp) are shown to induce similar levels of conductivity change in the device provided the time period is similar (T~0.01-1 s). Shorter timed pulses with higher voltage amplitude (Vamp > 4 V) but with equivalent flux as the other waveforms are observed to induce greater levels of conductivity changes in the device suggesting a nonlinear relationship between conductivity change and the strength of the pulse Vamp. Preliminary data on a potential application of many of these junctions in image processing is presented. In a simple technology application the memristive junctions are incorporated into a small array consisting of many individual Pt/NbO junctions. In the simplest iteration the continuum resistance of each junction is mapped to a greyscale value pinned at Glow. A custom Matlab code is used to interpret and translate images into voltage pulses with the required parameters necessary to reproduce the image within the junction array. Once executed, the Matlab code controls the voltage source and pulsing parameters in a semi-autonomous manor enabling complex neuromorphic behavior when multiple epochs or iterations are performed. Other applications such as edge detection, pixel movement and image recognition will also be discussed.  Training and operation of an integrated neuromorphic network based on metal-oxide memristors  A Single Nanoscale Junction with Programmable Multilevel Memory  Resistance switching memories are memristors
Authors : George Malliaras
Affiliations : Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines Head of Department of Bioelectronics 880 Avenue des Mimet 13541 Gardanne France
Resume : Introductory remarks
Authors : Meital Segev-Bar, Gady Konvalina, Phat Huynh, Hossam Haick
Affiliations : The Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
Resume : Electronic skin (e-skin) is a pixelated flexible sensing array, which senses external and environmental stimuli, in a manner similar to human skin. E-skin has been produced from diverse technologies, such as semiconducting organics, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and nanofibres. Although promising results have been achieved with these technologies, the multi-pixel integration, complicated wiring, applied voltage, and analysis remain challenges to overcome. For example, 10×10 pixelated e-skin requires 200–300 wiring devices and 100 electrical measurement devices, thus increasing the energy consumption and the e-skin cost. Here, we report for the first time, on a flexible substrate with two parallel gold nanoparticle (GNP) strips with anti-parallel sensitivity gradients for an unpixelated skin strip that diminishes the readout data for two resistance measurements only, acquired through three terminals. The e-skin strip exhibits highly sensitive prediction of both the load applied and position along the sensing strip and is sensitive to various environmental stimuli, such as temperature, humidity and volatile organic compounds. Additionally, the e-skin strip exhibits self-healing properties under normal (room temperature and atmospheric pressure) or harsh (low and high temperature) conditions, and maintains its excellent performance after several cycles of cutting and healing. These properties raise expectations that these e-skin strips might one day become self-administered, thus increasing their reliability in a number of applications, such as durable-transparency touch-screens, self-healing e-skin, and cost and effort efficiency in large-scale or hard-to-reach robotics and instruments.
Authors : J.V. Paulin(1), E.S. Bronze-Uhle(1,2), M.P. Silva(2), C.F.O. Graeff(2)
Affiliations : (1) POSMAT, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) , Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP, Brazil. (2) Department of Physics, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP, Brazil.
Resume : For over 40 years, eumelanin has been the focus of increasing attention as a promising functional material for organic devices like transistors, sensors, charge storage, memory devices and drug delivery . Eumelanins are an heterogeneous biopolymer with a combination of unique physical-chemical properties such as broad absorbance throughout the UV-visible region, strong non-radiative relaxation of photoexcited electronic states, hybrid ionic-electronic conduction, intrinsic free radical character and biocompatibility . These features inspire it’s use in bioelectronics applications. However, the low solubility of eumelanin is an issue that narrows its full technological potential. Thus, in this study we propose a different synthetic approach from L-DOPA and oxygen pressure to obtain eumelanin soluble derivative. We studied the effect of O2 pressure (4 to 8 atm) in aqueous and organic environment on the chemical structure of the derivative. The polymer obtained was compared with the conventional synthesized melanin and characterize using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and 13C-NMR. In aqueous medium, it was obtain a water-soluble derivative without any exotic functionalization. It is also possible to observe that at 8 atm of oxygen pressure leads to an increase in the reaction velocity, reducing the time required for the synthesis by a factor of 16 and a higher DHICA/DHI ratio of 50% compared to conventional synthesis . On the other hand, in organic medium (DMSO) we have a DMSO, DMF and NMP soluble material functionalized with sulfone groups. The time of the organic synthesis is reduced by a factor of 14 and 30% higher DHICA/DHI ratio with 8 atm of oxygen pressure compared to the traditional synthesis in DMSO . A reaction mechanism based on higher oxidative nature of the reaction medium including oxygen-induced decomposition of H2O2 is proposed to explain the structural changes observed. Keywords: Eumelanin, solubility, oxygen pressure, synthesis. Acknowledgment: We thank Prof. Marcos Donate (USP) for the reactor system and CAPES, FAPESP and CNPq for financial support. References:  M. d’ Ischia, et al.. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res., 2015, 28; 520–544.  R.C. Seally, et al.. Radicals in Biology Academic, New York, USA (1980).  S. N. Dezidério, et al.. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 2004, 338-340, 634–638.
Authors : J. Canivet, A. Legrand, V. Lysenko, A. Geloen, E.A. Quadrelli, D. Farrusseng,
Affiliations : IRCELYON, University of Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 8180, Villeurbanne, France Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon - INL, UMR CNRS 5270, Site INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France CARMEN, UMR INSERM 1060, Site INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France C2P2, University of Lyon 1 – CPE Lyon, UMR CNRS 5265, Villeurbanne, France
Resume : The global economic impact of the five leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic respiratory disease, cancer, diabetes and mental ill-health – could total US$ 47 trillion by 2030, according to a study released by the World Economic Forum in 2011. According to the World health organization, the four major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes) are responsible for 82% of NCDs deaths which corresponds to 31 million deaths in 2012. All these diseases involve a variation of H2S concentration in blood. Indeed, H2S is the 3rd endogenously generated gaseous signaling compound and it’s involved in the biological systems under physiological and pathological conditions. What about the development of accurate point-of-care testing for H2S blood concentration using fluorescent MOF as sensor? Early diagnostic will allow avoiding millions of deaths every year. We developed a functionalized MOF, via post-synthetic modification, able to specifically respond by a fluorescence turn-on mechanism to physiological (ie healthy person) and pathological (ie sick person) H2S concentration. The presentation will address the synthesis and characterization of MOF bearing functional moieties. Results of the specific reaction leading to an increase of MOF fluorescence when triggered by various H2S concentration will be also presented.
Authors : Y. VIERO, F. ALIBART, D. GUERIN, S. LENFANT, D. VUILLAUME
Affiliations : Institut d'Electronique, Microe-lectronique et Nanotechnologie (IEMN), CNRS UMR 8520, , Avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Resume : Conventional silicon-based computing is reaching its limit due to fundamental physical and reliability issues and new approaches have to be explored to go ?beyond Moore?. New paradigms for unconventional computing, e.g. Reservoir Computing (RC) approaches have attracted a large interest from computer science community but only few results have demonstrated and explored the material implementation of such computing networks. We previously studied the photoswitching performances of Azobenzene derivatives/Au NanoParticle Self-Assembled Network (AzBT-NPSAN) nanodevices1. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a reservoir composed of AzBT-NPSAN. This network is connected to sub 100 nm multi-electrode devices to stimulate / sense the reservoir dynamics. This non-linear conductance pathways network is also controlled by trans-cis photo-izomerisation of the molecules. We show reconfigurable Boolean logic operations at room temperature, associated to the light controlled switching of the molecules. Moreover, we investigate how complex non-linearity of the device leads to High Harmonics Generation (HHG), one of the prerequisites to RC approaches. We also show that HHG can be modified by UV illumination which paves the way for the processing of multi-input signals through a device that acts as a reservoir computer. 1 Y. VIERO et al. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (36), 21173?21183. Financially supported by EU-FET projects SYMONE and RECORD-IT and by the French ANR project FOST.
Authors : Bilel Hafsi1,2, Aïmen Boubaker2, Adel Kalboussi2, David Guerin1, Stéphane Lenfant1, Simon Desbief1, Fabien Alibart1, Dominique Vuillaume1, Kamal Lmimouni1
Affiliations : (1)IEMN Institut d?électronique de microélectronique et nanotechnologie, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France; (2) Laboratoire microélectronique et instrumentations (µEi) Université de Monastir, Av de la environnement, 5019 Monastir Tunisie.
Resume : Emerging synapse-like nanoscale devices such as synaptic transistors are of great interest to inspire new circuits and neuromorphic systems . These devices called NOMFET (Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field Effect Transistor), combines a memory and a transistor effect in a single device. In this paper, we present for the first time an N type NOMFET based on a polymeric semiconductor, ActivInk PolyeraTM N2200. Our device exhibit a facilitating and a depressing drain current behavior, with a relative amplitude of about 50% and a dynamic response of about 4s. Studying the charging/discharging dynamics, we modulate the amount of charges trapped in the NPs by applying a train of pulses separated by different time intervals ?t, in order to investigate the response of the synapse as a function of the pre- and post- synaptic neurons spiking activity. We demonstrate a typical anti-STDP learning function, one of the fundamental mechanisms of the unsupervised learning in biological neural networks . Combined with previous p-type NOMFET, our device can be a starting point to realize complementary circuits which bring us the capability to tune the STDP learning window.  F. Alibart et al. Adv. Funct. Mater., 22, 3, 609?616, 2012.  P. D. Roberts et al., Front. Comput. Neurosci., 4, 1?11, 2010.
Authors : Y. Ahmane1, F. Mechachti2, L. Choukri3, Z. Skanderi2, A. Djebaili2*; Ilhem. R. Kriba2 , J.P. Chopart4
Affiliations : 1 Faculty of Sciences- Department of Chemistry - University of Biskra- Algeria 2 Laboratory of chemistry and environmental chemistry L.C.C.E - University of Batna- Algeria 3 Laboratoiry of chemistry. Faculty of Sciences. University of Boumerdes- Algeria. 4 Laboratory of Mechanical Stress-Transfer Dynamics at Interfaces – LACMDTI URCA,BP 1039, 51687 University of Reims Cedex2, France
Resume : The optimization of the geometric and electronic structure of polyacetylene with the different substituents of donor and acceptor functional groups was conducted with the basis set of 3-21G and 6-31 G**(d,p). The rates of these isomerizations and Arrhenius geometric parameters were determined. In the case of unsubstituted polyacetylene as a reference, the values of the equilibrium constant for the isomerization reaction were also determined at various temperatures between 300 and 500 K as well the value of the change in energy. The results show that the energy of the isomerization reaction are positive and the values of the gap are very sensitive to the effect of the substituent.
Authors : Marco Stefancich, Harry Apostoleris, Matteo Chiesa
Affiliations : CNR-IMEM Parma - Italy, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology - Abu Dhabi - United Arab Emirates, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology - Abu Dhabi - United Arab Emirates
Resume : We present here an example of transparency switching in a composite polymeric material. A mixture of silicone and ketones is thoroughly mixed and cured, obtaining a silicone “sponge” imbued with the choice of ketones. A fully reversible, thermally induced transition between opaque and transparent states is demonstrated. The activation temperature is programmable by a suitable choice of one of the composite components. Due to the refractive index difference, the mixture behaves as a Christiansen’s filter and, opaque at room temperature, achieves full transparency, above the melting temperature of the chosen ketones. Besides the specific example, we will discuss how large variations in the refractive index of some components in a multi-component mixture, of otherwise transparent materials, can be harnessed to create a variable transparency system or a beam steering device that can be either externally controlled or react autonomously to environmental stimuli. Optically adaptive materials can be, among many applications, of use for controlled light gathering in building, increased efficiency in solar panels, sensor protection devices and passive warning systems for hazardous environmental conditions.
Authors : Guillem Domènech-Gil(1), Jordi Samà (1), Irimina Peiró-Riera (1), Paolo Pelegrino (1), Sven Barth (2), Albert Romano-Rodriguez (1)
Affiliations : 1. Universitat de Barcelona (UB), MIND-Departament d’Electrònica and Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), E-08028 Barcelona, Spain 2. Vienna University of Technology (TUW), Institut für Materialchemie, A-1040 Vienna, Austria
Resume : Gallium oxide nanomaterials have been fabricated via carbothermal reduction using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and employing gallium oxide nanopowder as source material. The growth has been performed under argon gas stream. With few variations of the experimental conditions but depending on the distance from source to the substrate, different nanostructures and shapes have been obtained. Among them, nanowires have been synthesised, which tend to grow either in a 2D web distribution or vertically, and nanoplateletes. Nanowires have been structurally and optically characterised using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy, confirming their monocrystalline nature. To study the gas sensing properties, the nanowires were removed from the substrates applying sonication, followed by the deposition on suspended microhotplates with prepatterned electrodes and individual nanomaterials were contacted by combined Focused Electron- and Focused Ion-Beam assisted deposition techniques. The devices have been tested towards different gases relevant in air quality monitoring, like NO2 and CO, at different concentrations and temperatures. The sensing properties will be reported and the relation to the structural and chemical properties of the nanomaterials will be established.
Authors : C. A. Plazas, K.M. Fonseca-Romero, R. R. Rey-González
Affiliations : Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, 111321, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
Resume : Scientific interest in designing and making low dimensional electronic devices with traditional or novel materials is increasing since last two decades. Among the new materials, segments of DNA chains are highlighted. In fact, electronic properties of DNA strands have been widely study. However, the experimental results have contradictions that pointing to DNA has behaviors as conductor, semiconductor or insulator. The purpose of this contribution is to spread some light on this surprising problem, in spite that we use a theoretical toy model to study this apparent contradiction. We perform numerical calculations of electrical conductance on DNA segments. DNA is modeled as 1D disordered finite chains and described into a Tight binding model with nearest neighbor interactions and a s orbital per site. The inherent disorder of DNA is modelled as a random binary alloy with short-range correlations. Also, hydration effects are included as random variations of on-site self-energies. The electronic current as a function of applied bias is calculated using Launder formalism, where the transmission probability is determined into the transfer matrix formalism. We find a conductor-to-semiconductor-to-insulator transition as a function of the three effects taken into account: chain size, intrinsic disorder, and hydration. Authors like to thank to Universidad Nacional de Colombia for their financial support.
Authors : Paschalis Gkoupidenis, Nathan Schaefer, Benjamin Garlan, Xenofon Strakosas, Jessamyn A. Fairfield
Affiliations : Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, 13541 Gardanne, France; Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, 13541 Gardanne, France; Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, 13541 Gardanne, France; Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, 13541 Gardanne, France; School of Chemistry and CRANN Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, 13541 Gardanne, France;
Resume : Neural processing in the brain is an extremely complex and yet efficient process, which, the powerful modern computers still struggle to capture. The reason for this limitation of modern computers lies in the heart of their architecture: static units are dedicated either to information processing or storing. This blueprint is determined during the design of a system and only predefined computational tasks are managed by such a static system. This strict definition of tasks, equips these systems with powerful computational capabilities, which although lack of fault tolerance. Moreover, signal processing in general purpose computing systems is limited in utilizing electrical signals of microelectronic devices, and the lack of interaction with biological substances such as living organisms is evident in these systems. On the other hand, a biologic system such as the brain offers a more generic address of information processing: spatiotemporal signals (electrical, ionic, chemical, optical and mechanical) from various sensory systems are processed in a microcircuitry environment that evolves structurally and functionally over time, resulting in memory and learning. Furthermore, the computational units of the brain are not strictly dedicated on specific tasks, in a way that processing and storing is merged on the same micro-regions of the brain. The human brain consists of approximately 1011 neurons communicating to each other in an interwoven network of almost 1014 synapses. Neurons process and transmit information and are regarded as the processing units of the brain, while are interconnected to each other through synapses (i.e., the memory units) in a complex network and their connection efficiency (synaptic plasticity) can be modified in a range of timescales. Synaptic plasticity can be broadly divided into two categories: short- (msec - min) and long-term (> min, days or even longer). Long-term plasticity underlies memory and learning, while short-term plasticity assists various computational tasks of the brain such as transmission, encoding and filtering of neural signaling. This complex network attributes unique capabilities to the brain, such as fault tolerance, massive parallelism and energy efficiency. The realization of neuroinspired circuits, able to emulate the processing capabilities of the brain, demands the development of neuromorphic devices that will be able to mimic the various synaptic plasticity functions of the brain. Recently, several functions of the neural circuitry, such as short- and long-term plasticity, Spike-Time-Dependent-Plasticity, short to long term memory transition and dynamic filtering were implemented in a single device level. Over the past decades, organic electronic materials are attracting increasing interest within the semiconductor industry due to a unique properties, such as compatibility with low-cost fabrication processes and large-area, mechanically flexible substrates, tunability of their electronic properties via chemical synthesis, and biocompatibility in some cases. Recently, organic devices have also entered the realm of neuromorphic devices and various synaptic plasticity functions were also implemented with two and three terminal devices. An organic-based device of particular interest especially in the field of bioelectronics is the organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). Regarding the interaction with biological substances, OECTs offer several interesting features such as operation in liquid electrolyte environment, ionic-to-electronic transduction, amplification and potential biocompatibility. In this work, we will present our recent findings in neuromorphic devices based on the OECT platform. The device channel consist on derivatives of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PEDOT:PTHF). The volatile phenomena of PEDOT:PSS based OECTs are used for the implementation of short-term synaptic plasticity functions (e.g., Pair-Pulsed-Depression, adaptation and dynamic filtering), while the non-volatile memory phenomena of PEDOT:PTHF based OECTs, are used for the implementation of long-term plasticity functions (e.g., synaptic integration, short- to long-term memory transition and merged information processing and storage behavior). The results presented here pave the way for future, organic-based, neuroinspired circuits.
Authors : Viola Tokarova1, Ondrej Kaspar1, Hsin-Yu Lin1, Falco van Delft2, Dan V. Nicolau1
Affiliations : 1 McGill University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0C3, Canada; 2 Molecular Sense Ltd., 17 Monk Road, CH44 1AJ, Wallasey, Merseyside, United Kingdom
Resume : Microfluidic techniques have increased potential and broadened their application in the field of micro-reactor engineering, particulate systems formation to very challenging and complex lab-on-a-chip apparatus. Moreover, the fabrication techniques used in construction of microfluidic device enable to encode hard mathematical problems into networks consisting of micro-channels in form of nodes and junctions. The use of biological agent such as bacteria, fungi or protein motors has a great potential in solving such mathematical problems in highly parallel manner, and thus substitute conventional computing. In this work, bacterial strains of motile Pseudomonas putida, Magnetococcus marinus and Vibrio fischeri were tested in terms of their motility behavior and prioritization inside microfluidic channel networks. A pre-requisite parametric study of optimal channel design for each strain of studied bacteria were obtained and selected application of bio-simulation and bio-computation microfluidics chips were introduced.
Authors : F. Pappa, V. Karagkiozaki, S. Kassavetis, S. Fachouri, S. Logothetidis
Affiliations : Nanomedicine Group, Lab for “Thin Films- Nanobiomaterials, Nanosystems & Nanometrology”, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; BL NanoBiomed P.C, 145 Vasilisis Olgas, 54645, Thessaloniki, Greece
Resume : Neurodegenerative diseases are consider to be a significant challenge of 21st century, due to the difficulty of the nervous system to be restored after s severe damage. Recently, application of Nanomedine as a valuable tool for the detection and treatment of Neurodegenerative diseases used in order to improve functional neuroprotective agents and enhance restoration of affected neural tissues. In this study we proceed towards the fabrication of a Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) /Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold by Dual Electrospinning System, further treated with Oxygen Plasma and explored its application as nerve guide substrate and regenerative agent in vitro. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and chemical composition were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Contact Angle measurement and XPS respectively. SEM revealed the rough surfaces of plasma-treated scaffolds and the dual physicochemical behavior, combining both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Contact angle on plasma-treated scaffolds appeared smaller than on untreated and the O/C atomic ratio was also found to be increased. Neural cell line was cultivated onto the engineered matrices and in vitro studies indicated that nano-fibrous scaffolds promoted neural cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. Oxygen plasma treatment of the scaffolds further promoted cell differentiation with the presence of neuritis endings and the formation of a neural network. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it is believed that this electrospun nerve scaffold could find further application in cell therapy for nerve regeneration in order to improve functional regeneration outcome, especially for longer nerve defect restoration.
Authors : W.Y. Huang, J.F. Wang, C.C. Ling*, J.Gao*
Affiliations : University of Hong Kong
Resume : All oxide heterostructures composed with La0.9Hf0.1MnO3(LHMO) and ZnO thin layers have been integrated on (0001) sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The LHMO is known as electron doped manganite since the Hf dopants have unique 4 valence. X-ray diffraction shows that these thin films are of single phase and highly epitaxial. Similar to those heterojunctions composed with La0.9Hf0.1MnO3 and other manganites, the La0.9Hf0.1MnO3 /ZnO n-n junctions also exhibit excellent rectifying behaviors over the temperature range 60K-320K. Moreover, photoconductivity of the junctions appears to be significant under 240K. The temperature dependence of photoconductivity is also investigated. The open circuit voltage Voc is ~ 0.12V at 240K. When the temperature is lowered, it increases continuously.These phenomena can be attributed to the change of band structure due to lattice deformation.
Authors : BEY Houda*, GTARI Wala, ASCHI Adel and OTHMAN Tahar
Affiliations : Laboratoire de Physique de la matière Molle et de la Modélisation Electromagnétique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université El Manar, 2092 Campus Universitaire, Tunis, Tunisia
Resume : Small angle light scattering (SALS) is a new technique for structural measures in a large size range, which is suitable for the study of soft matter . It is a method of light scattering that bridges the gap between the broadcasting techniques standard light as dynamic or static Light Scattering (DLS and SLS) and microscopy. The sample is illuminated with an expanded beam of coherent light and a camera (CCD) monitors the intensity of the light transmitted. The image shows speckle fluctuations, which are captured by the speckle. In this work, we will study the influence of physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, pressure ...).We developed complex coacervation (protein and polyelectrolyte) that leads to the formation of microcapsules. The understanding the mechanisms of formation of coacervates in different environmental conditions is essential if we are to predict and improve techno-functional properties of coacervates. Indeed, it has been shown that the functional properties of the complexed biopolymer were higher than those of the biopolymers alone and that the areas of use of these complex macromolecular assemblies were multiple. This work is widely used in many industrial applications as the development of new multifunctional food ingredients include the purification of biological molecules by precipitation, micro- or nano-encapsulation of active substances in pharmacy, medicine or cosmetology, synthesis of therapeutic vectors synthesis biomaterials biocompatible or development of biosensor. Keywords: Small Angle Light Scattering, Complex, Coacervats, Microencapsulation. Référence: Cipelletti L., Carpineti M.,Giglio M, Two-color cross-correlation in small-angle static light scatterin,Physical Review,53,1997. Bhatia S.R, Ultra-small-angle scattering studies of complex fluids.Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science: 9, 404 – 411,2005.  Jain A.,Thakur D.,Ghoshal G. ,Katare O. P. , Shivhare U. S.,Microencapsulation by Complex Coacervation Using Whey Protein Isolates and Gum Acacia: An Approach to Preserve the Functionality and Controlled Release of β-Carotene,Food Bioprocess Technol ,8:1635–1644,2015.
Authors : Angelica Cifarelli1, Tatiana Berzina2, Antonella Parisini1, Salvatore Iannotta 2.
Affiliations : 1 University of Parma, Viale delle Scienze 7A, 43124 Parma, Italy 2 CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37A, 43125 Parma, Italy
Resume : Electrical and optical characterization were applied for the study of devices that could be used in bioassay, thus, a degree of biocompatibility was been preliminary tested . They made of a polyaniline film, 70 nm thickness and a coating biopolymers polyelectrolyte complex, based on polysaccharide (chitosan, pectins). Although Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most interesting conductive polymers for biosensor design in view of its excellent electrochemical properties (reversible redox behavior, and electrochemical tunability), long-term environmental stability, and functionality-rich chemical structure ; the pH sensitivity seems unfavorable for its application in biosensors, because most bioassays must be performed in neutral or slightly acidic conditions. Therefore, to interface conductivity PANI films with biological environment is necessary a bearing buffer layer. Multilayers consisting of the conductive polymer and biopolymers, transferred onto solid substrate were studied also as a function of the applied voltage, as this system constitutes the core of an electrochemically controlled device whose strongly nonlinear characteristic make it useful for applications to adaptive networks for complex information processing. Moreover by I-V characteristics we could confirm the crucial role of Cl- in the memristive behavior of these biopolymers based devices. Besides, a selectivity degree for the calcium ion, Ca2+ of these jellified pectine based layers formed across, which work as an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte, arouses interest for sensing applications; since calcium ion is one of the most versatile and universal signalling agents and regulators of many different cellular processes .  A. Cifarelli, T. Berzina ,V. Erokhin, Physica Status Solidi (c) 12, 1-2, 218–221, 2015.  C, Dhand, N. Dwivedi, BD. Malhotra, Dovepress, 4, 25—46, 2015.  S. Orrenius, B. Zhivotovsky, P. Nicotera, Nature 395, 645-648, 1998.
Authors : Yaping Qi, Ju Gao
Affiliations : Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Resume : La0.9Hf0.1MnO3 (LHMO) films was grown on 0.05%Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STON) substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that our samples were of good epitaxy and single-crystal. The temperature dependent resistance has been investigated. It was observed that the as-grown film of LHMO exhibited a typical paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. Similar to the previously reported LHMO/0.7% STON heterojunction, LHMO/0.05% STON heterojunction exhibited asymmetric current-voltage characteristics and a remarkable temperature-dependent rectifying behavior in a wide temperature range (from 40 to 300 K).While LHMO/ 0.05%STON heterojunction exhibited an abnormal behavior that a lower leakage current has been found in high temperature region. This behavior is different from our previous report on LHMO/ 0.7%STON heterojunction. Another significant feature on this heterojunction is under the light illumination with wavelength of 650nm and 532nm, the I-V curve of LHMO/0.05%STON heterojunction moved downward, and a photocurrent was observed. Such features may be applicable in functional device. The rectifying characteristics and photoelectric properties of these heterojunctions may be attributed on band structure of LHMO/0.05%STON heterojunction.
Authors : Mingyu Jo 1, Reon Katsumura 1, Atsushi Tsurumaki-Fukuchi 1, Masashi Arita 1, Yasuo Takahashi 1, Hideyuki Andoh 2, and Takashi Morie 2
Affiliations : 1 Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Kita-14, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814, Japan; 2 Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, 808-0196, Japan;
Resume : Resistance random access memory (ReRAM) is an attractive non-volatile memory, which has simple structure consisting of two electrodes and insulating layers between them. Recently, a synapse device for neuromorphic computing using multilevel ReRAM was proposed, in which ReRAM was used as an analog-resistance memory. In this work we show methods to control the resistance of MoOx ReRAM. We fabricated 1T1R-type ReRAMs of which 1T is an n-channel MOSFET. The stacked structure of MoOx ReRAM consisting of an aluminum bottom electrode, an AlOx layer, a MoOx layer (50nm), a Cu layer as an active electrode (30nm) and a Pt top electrode (100nm) was formed on the drain terminal of the MOSFET. The ReRAM device showed bipolar switching characteristics. By the use of the SET compliance current controlled by the gate voltage of the nMOSFET, we succeeded in controlling the low-resistance state (LRS) almost corresponding to the gate voltage. As a result, the resistance in the LRS decreased monotonically as the compliance current or gate voltage increased. This result is attributed to formation of thicker filament relying on the increased compliance current. However, LRS of the ReRAM shows some variability. So, we tried to apply a verify scheme and demonstrated that the verification makes the resistance close to the target value.
Authors : Svetlana Erokhina
Affiliations : KFU-RASA Research Center, Kazan, Russia
Resume : Organic memristive device is a very perspective electronic compound for mimicking essential parts of nervous systems in artificial electronic circuits . Its working principle is based on the significant difference of the polyaniline (PANI) conductivity in reduced and oxidized forms . The conductivity switching is accompanied by the lithium ions diffusion between PANI and polyelectrolyte layers. As these events occur in a solid phase, the thickness of the active channel is a crucial parameter. Thus, up to 2015 the only technique used for the PANI channel realization was a LB one . In 2015, two alternative technological approaches were reported: polyelectrolyte self-assembling, known also as layer-by-layer (LbL) method , and spin coating . This work is dedicated to the comparative analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of each method. In particular, we will compare final device features (absolute conductivity; ON-OFF conductivity ratio); technological aspects (requirements to the equipment, speed of the fabrication); possibility of the realization of biocompatible structures for interfacing with living beings. 1. V. Erokhin, A. Schuz, M.P. Fontana, Int. J. Unconv. Comp., 6, 15 (2009). 2. V. Erokhin, T. Berzina, M.P. Fontana, J. Appl. Phys., 97, 064501 (2005). 3. V. Erokhin, M.P. Fontana, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci., 8, 313 (2011). 4. S. Erokhina, V. Sorokin, V. Erokhin, Electron. Mater. Lett., 11, 801 (2015). 5. D. Lapkin, et al., BioNanoScience, 5, 181 (2015).
Authors : F. Mechachti1, Z. Skanderi1, Y. Ahmane2, A. Djebaili1*; Ilhem. R. Kriba1 , L. Choukri3, J.P. Chopart4
Affiliations : 1 Laboratory of chemistry and environmental chemistry L.C.C.E - University of Batna- Algeria 2 Faculty of Sciences- Department of Chemistry - University of Biskra- Algeria 3 Laboratoiry of chemistry. Faculty of Sciences. University of Boumerdes- Algeria. 4 Laboratory of Mechanical Stress-Transfer Dynamics at Interfaces – LACMDTI URCA,BP 1039, 51687 University of Reims Cedex2, France
Resume : In this study, we used quantum chemistry calculations in order to determine some kinetic parameters of the isomerization reaction of the substituted dodecahexane. The studied molecules are: (C12H14, C12H7F7, C12H7Cl7,C12H7Br7 et C12H7I7) Cis and Trans. One of the adopted ways to access these parameters (activation energy, rate constant, etc ...) is looking for the transition state that is based on the exploration of intermediaries during the passage of Cis-Trans isomerization process. The study of a ten molecules series gives the following results: The Trans conformer is more stable than the Cis. The activation energy changes very greatly depending on the size and nature of the substituent according to the reaction profile. The constants of the isomerization reaction rates are in the following order: kC12H14 >> kC12H7F7>> kC12H7Cl7>>kC12H7Br7>> kC12H7I7. The geometrical parameters vary considerably according to intermediate products The calculation methods are DFT and Ab-initio methods at STO-3G *.
Authors : Y. Ahmane1, F. Mechachti2, L. Choukri3, Z. Skanderi2, A. Djebaili2*; Ilhem. R. Kriba2 , J.P. Chopart4
Affiliations : 1 Faculty of Sciences- Department of Chemistry - University of Biskra- Algeria 2 Laboratory of chemistry and environmental chemistry L.C.C.E - University of Batna- Algeria 3 Laboratoiry of chemistry. Faculty of Sciences. University of Boumerdes- Algeria. 3 Laboratory of Dynamics & Interfaces – LADI- University of Reims, France
Resume : The results obtained through the optimization of molecules gave us the different distances and angles according to the methods and bases applied with a C2v symmetry. We were able to determine the total energies, the energy gap ΔE (HOMO-LUMO) of the four conformers trans-transoid; trans-cisoid; cis-transoid; cis-cisoid. (the semi empirical AM1+PM6 at 6-31G and 3-21G** levels) and finally a comprehensive analysis on the topological charges. The analysis of the results show that for the eight molecules, the trans-transoid conformer is energetically very stable compared to the cis-cisoid one, this stability is confirmed by the obtained values for the total energy. The increase in the stability energy leads to a less important Homo-Lumo energy gap. The analysis of the optimized geometrical parameters of the ten molecules using the AM1 and PM6 methods, are in agreement with the experimental structures characterized by X-ray diffraction. Finally, we were able to determine the reaction profiles of the Cis-Trans isomerization reactions of the decapenta-ene in the gas phase, and to calculate the activation energy (Ea), as well as the diagrams of energies E (eV) based on the coordinates of the isomerization reaction of its molecules, and molar absorption according to energy calculated by the method HF at 6-31G and 3-21G** levels. Thus we have to determine the Spectrum IR of all the molecules by (AM1) and PM6. Keywords: substituted decapenta-ene , semi empirical, HF (AM1+PM6),
Authors : T. BENTRCIA 1, F. DJEFFAL 2,* AND E. CHEBAKI 2
Affiliations : 1 Department of Physics, University of Batna, Algeria. 2 Department of Electronics, University of Batna, Algeria. * Corresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Resume : In recent years, the nanoscale multigate MOSFETs have attracted more attentions in nanoelectronics technology due to their high electrical performance for advanced integration circuits in nanoscale domain. However, the accurate modeling of these devices is still an important challenge due to the complex quantum behavior that describes the transport mechanism. In this context, several approaches have been proposed to investigate the nanoscale Double Gate (DG) MOSFET using numerical and analytical approaches. But from the circuit simulation point of view even numerical modeling is an overkill approach in terms of complexity and computational cost. In addition, it is difficult to obtain closed and compact analytical models for nanotransistors due to the approximations taken during the models development. Therefore, modeling tools which can be applied to design nanoscale devices require new modeling approaches taking into account the model accuracy and computation efficiency. The aim of this paper is to investigate the efficiency of a new approach, built upon Kriging metamodeling and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, for the optimal design in terms of RF and analog performances including the hot carrier effects. Data generated according to computer experiments, based on Atlas 2-D simulator, are used to identify and fit Kriging surrogate models. It is emphasized that the obtained models can be used accurately in a multi-objective context to offer several Pareto optimal configurations. Therefore, a wide range of selection possibilities is available to the designer depending on situations under consideration.
Authors : Pasquale D'Angelo, Giuseppe Tarabella, Agostino Romeo, Victor Erokhin.
Affiliations : IMEM-CNR Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (IMEM) National Research Council (CNR) Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A 43124, Parma (Italy).
Resume : We report recent advances in organic electrochemically-active devices interfaced with cellular systems. The device is proposed as a neuro-inspired biomorphic computational platform expanding the functionality boundaries of current neuromorphic devices. The sensing properties and the memristive responses, are investigated. An organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) based on PEDOT:PSS is shown as an in-vitro diagnostics tool. The sensor can monitor the health state of a cell culture stressed with drugs, as well as cellular conformational responses under modifications of the surrounding environment. We show also how the OECT represents a micro-compartment where basic chemical reactions, eventually mimicking bio-processing, can be reproduced and studied. An organic device interfaced with the Physarum Polycephalum Cell represents a whole-organic device working with a living organism, We used the PPC as it presents surprising properties of intelligence and memory. When coupled with organic semiconductors it leads to the possibility to build a basic organic logic unit with memristive properties or bio-inspired devices showing non-volatile memory effects.
Authors : Yong Jung Kwon, Sung Yong Kang, Myung Sik Choi, Jae Hoon Bang, Hyoun Woo Kim
Affiliations : Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul, 133-791, Korea.
Resume : We prepared TeO2 branched SnO2 nanowires, which were obtained from the 2-step vapor-liquid-solid method. The changes in morphologies, microstructures, and compositions of the resulting TeO2 branched SnO2 nanowire were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The SnO2 nanowires with TeO2 branches provide a significantly enhanced gas detection, in comparison to undecorated SnO2. The attachment of p-type TeO2 branches on conventionally-fabricated n-type SnO2 stem nanowires is expected to bring about useful and economical composite nanostructures. The present study on composite-nanostructures will be a significant contribution to both the academic field and industrial applications, which will be useful in exploring new areas of multiple-component nanosystems.
Authors : Giacomo Baldi, Matteo Bosi, Cristian Collini, Leandro Lorenzelli, Salvatore Iannotta
Affiliations : IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma, Italy; IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma, Italy; FBK Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento, Italy; FBK Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento, Italy; IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma, Italy
Resume : Memristor devices have attracted a great interest worldwide because they hold the promise to overcome the present limitations in semiconductor industry in terms of downsizing of transistors on a single chip. More than this, the ability of memristors to “remember” the history of the charge that has passed through them in the past, is very promising for the realization of hardware analogues of a synapse. We will here present the realization of two kind of devices, based either on the use of an aluminium oxide layer or of a titanium oxide one, in the form of a metal-insulator-metal stack that present good memristive behaviour. The thin films of the oxide materials are prepared by means of atomic layer deposition, a technique for thin film deposition that uses gas pulses, producing one atomic layer at a time. The thickness of the film in principle depends only on the number of deposition cycles, resulting in extremely high uniformity and thickness control. We will show some preliminary results on the use of these devices to implement simple logical operations with memory and on the use of a crossbar array of memristors as a single layer perceptron, a kind of neural network able to perform various logical operations after a few training cycles.
Authors : Luca Ascari, Marcello Mastroleo, Fabio Deon, Roberto Ugolotti, Maria Del Vecchio, Luca Kubin.
Affiliations : Henesis srl
Resume : The rapidly growing field of brain computer interface (BCI) has recently benefited from a significant coordination effort through the "BNCI Horizon 2020" project funded by the European Commission, which identified roadmaps for the development of future BCIs clustered around some well defined use cases: a BCI can replace some central nervous system (CNS) outputs as a result of injury or disease through the control of artefacts such as wheelchairs or prosthetic limbs, restore lost CNS outputs stimulating body parts such as muscles in paralysed persons, enhance natural CNS output like attention monitoring systems, improve natural CNS output such as in rehabilitation. The number of applications that in the future will benefit from BCIs is significant and broad, covering rehabilitation, medical and therapeutic applications, but also entertainment and human machine interaction. Aspects like real-time performance, automatic adaptation to multiple users or to the variability over time of the same user, ease of train and cognitive effort needed to be operated, will deeply impact BCIs adoption and diffusion. A real interdisciplinary approach touching hardware, software, computational neuroscience appears to be essential to fulfill all these requirements: the aim of this review is to give the reader an update on the most recent developments in the rapidly evolving area at the intersection of BCI, machine learning and hardware implementation of neuromorphic computational paradigms.
Authors : Ondrej Kaspar a, Hailong Zhang b, Viola Tokarova a, Reinhard I. Boysen b, Gemma Rius Sune c, Xavier Borrise c, Francesco Perez-Murano c, Milton T. W. Hearn b, Dan V. Nicolau a,b
Affiliations : a McGill University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0C3, Canada; b Monash University, ARC Special Research Centre for Green Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; c Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB, CSIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Resume : This study explores the limits of the capability of ordered, micron-sized patterns, which alternate hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas, to confine water down to attolitre volumes on practically flat surfaces. The contact angle, volume, and geometry of the confined droplets have been precisely determined by Atomic Force Microscopy and, separately in silico, by phenomenological simulations (Surface Evolver). The combination of AFM topographical experiments and equilibrium droplet shape simulation was used to describe non-trivial wetting phenomena at micro/nano scale for rectangular structures of various wettability. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the rectangular footprint of micro/nano-structured surfaces causes significant pinning of the nano-droplets to the rim corners. These findings can be used for development of the purposeful design of surface-addressable hydrophobicity arrays employed in digital microfluidics and high throughput screening nano-arrays.
Authors : Giovanni Giusti (a), Lucrezia Aversa (a), Giacomo Baldi (b), Cristian Collini (c), Nicola Cornella (d), Laura Pasquardini (c), Roberta Tatti (a), Leandro Lorenzelli (c), Lorenzo Lunelli (c), Paolo Macchi (d), Marco Vittorio Nardi (a-e), Cecilia Pederzolli (c), Roberto Verucchi (a) and Salvatore Iannotta (b)
Affiliations : (a) IMEM-CNR Institute, Via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo – I-38123 Trento, Italy (b) IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma, Italy (c) FBK Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento, Italy (d) Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, CiBio, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Trento, Italy (e) Department of Industrial Engineering – University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Povo, Italy
Resume : The bio-interaction between human beings and machines has been one of the most fascinating challenges in the last decade. Several complications in terms of biocompatibility, type of chemical signal and the scalability of the electrical devices are still present. Within this context, memristor devices represent possible candidates in this direction, thanks to their particular electrical behavior similar to the neuronal response, their expectable biocompatibility and their nanoscale dimensions. In this work, a vacuum-based deposition technique, namely Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS) is proposed and exploited to synthesize TiO2-based materials. PMCS is based on a supersonic beam seeded by clusters of metal oxide and it is used to grow nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films at room temperature, controlling the oxide stoichiometry from metallic titanium to a significant oxygen excess. Morphological and chemical analyses of films produced with this technique are shown, together with relevant examples of metal-insulator-metal structures showing a pinched hysteresis loop in their current-voltage characteristics. Moreover, an important study on the biocompatibility and neurocompatibility of PMCS grown TiO2 having different stoichiometries is presented, as well as the approaches to improve the quality of the adhesion/proliferation of several cell lines growing on the nanostructured metal oxides. This study is the first fundamental stage for the realization of novel memristor-neuron interfacial based devices. This work is developed in the framework of MaDEleNA project (Provincia Autonoma Trento, Grandi Progetti 2012).
Authors : Valentina Prusakova (a), Cristian Collini (b), Giovanni Giusti (c), Lorenzo Lunelli (d), Lia Vanzetti (e), Leandro Lorenzelli (b), Roberto Verucchi (c), Salvatore Iannotta (f), Sandra Dirè (a)
Affiliations : (a) Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy; (b) FBK, CMM - MICROSYSTEMS, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy; (c) CNR-IMEM, Via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo - 38123 Trento, Italy; (d) FBK, LaBSSAH, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy; (e) FBK, CMM – MNF, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy; (f) CNR-IMEM, University of Parma, Viale Usberti 7A, 42124 Parma, Italy
Resume : The sol-gel method is a wet-chemistry procedure that allows a fabrication of exceptionally smooth, coherent thin films with controllable properties, including chemical composition and thickness. Thus, the sol-gel approach provides a versatile tool for the development of desirable building blocks for a memristor cell fabrication. For the first time, the sol-gel procedure was adopted to deposited TiO2/Ta2O5 stacks on SiO2/Ti/Pt engineered electrode. The bottom TiO2 layer may be produced by the sol-gel and Pulsed Micro-plasma Cluster Source (PMCS) methods, whereas Ta2O5 is deposited solely by spin coating of Ta-sol onto the cured TiO2 layers. The produced layer morphology and chemical composition were studied by a set of complementary techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The combined studies exposed homogeneous, smooth and defect-free thin films suitable for the memristive cell fabrication. The developed memristive cells based on sol-gel derived TiO2/Ta2O5 stacks revealed a narrow switching voltage window and a high resistance ratio (1000).
Poster session : .
Authors : R. Burganova, Y. Lysogorskiy, D. Tayurskii, V. Erokhin
Affiliations : Kazan Federal University, University of Parma; Kazan Federal University; Kazan Federal University; Kazan Federal University, Institute of materials for electronics and magnetism
Resume : The organic memristor is an important element of a new generation of computational systems and neuromorphic networks considered as a synthetic analogue of the synapses of the neurons of living beings due to ability of changing its resistance depending on charge that has passed through it. The main component of the device – active layer – consists of thin-film polymeric materials or polymer-based heterostructures (such as polyaniline or polyaniline-polystyrene sulfonate) in contact with the solid electrolyte (lithium doped polyethylene oxide). Working principle of the organic memristor is based on the ability of such active layer to change its conductivity between the conducting and insulating states as a result of applied voltage. Since reversible redox reactions involving lithium ions are responsible for such processes, the response speed is one of the most important properties, defining usability of the device. Lithium ions diffusion speed therefore is the main value, characterizing working properties of the organic memristor. In the present work we have investigated theoretically lithium ions diffusion in polymeric materials, which are components of the memristor, and have compared the results with the pulsed field gradient NMR experiments. Moreover, we have explored transformations of the active layer between conducting and insulating states by means of IR spectroscopy and have compared the IR spectra with the theoretical calculations.
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Authors : Petra Ritter
Affiliations : Charité The Bernstein Center Berlin Research Group Brain Modes Department of Neurology Charité, Charitéplatz 1 10117 Berlin Germany Office: Department of Neurology
Resume : Introductory remarks
Authors : Massimiliano Di Ventra
Affiliations : Department of Physics, University of California San Diego
Resume : Which features make the brain such a powerful and energy-efficient computing machine? Can we reproduce them in the solid state, and if so, what type of computing paradigm would we obtain? I will show that a machine that uses memory to both process and store information, like our brain, and is endowed with intrinsic parallelism and information overhead - namely takes advantage, via its collective state, of the network topology related to the problem - has a computational power far beyond our standard digital computers . We have named this novel computing paradigm “memcomputing” . As an example, I will show the polynomial-time solution of prime factorization and the NP-hard version of the subset-sum problem using polynomial resources and self-organizable logic gates, namely gates that self-organize to satisfy their logical proposition . These are examples of scalable digital memcomputing machines that can be easily realized with available nanotechnology components.  F. L. Traversa and M. Di Ventra, Universal Memcomputing Machines, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, 26, 2702 (2015).  M. Di Ventra and Y.V. Pershin, Computing: the Parallel Approach, Nature Physics, 9, 200 (2013).  F. L. Traversa and M. Di Ventra, arXiv:1512.05064
Authors : G. Copie, S. Carillo, C. Krzeminski, F. Cleri, C. Delerue, Y. Viero , S. Lenfant , D. Guerin ,D. Vuillaume
Affiliations : IEMN, UMR-CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré 59650 Villeneuve d'Ascq
Resume : Great potential are expected in the development of memristive devices for new electronic applications based on NPSANs. A clear challenge is the increase of the understanding related to NPSANs arrays using photomechanical molecular switches. Thus, some work has been undertaken for the modeling of the elctronic properties of the building blocks of a switchable dithiol quaterthiophene derivative with an diazobenzene chain and a thiolphenylethyne substituent. The key question is the ability of this molecule to implement a photomechanical switch able to demonstrate large electronic changes. The study reveals the complexity of the coupling between the optical and the active electrical part. Next, a second open question is the impact of conformation changes and the time fluctuations of the photomechanical switch in a numerous arrays of gold nanoparticles. Preliminary simulations have been done using Au nanoparticle/cis-trans AzBT molecule/ Au nanoparticle and have been modelled usinf empirical molecular dynamics simulation with the DLPOLY code and the MM3 potential. The molecular dynamics simulation tends to indicate that the intermixing between the cis states is not perfectly stable and that the cis configuration have a tendency to separate from each others. On the other side, the trans configuration exhibits more stability in term of intermixing. Finally, a last challenge for the modelling of these devices is to address the electronic charge transport in a numerous array of molecules in order to adress the case of numerous and multiple molecular junctions.
Authors : Beatriz Garcia Vasallo (1), Fabio Galan Prado (1), Javier Mateos (1), Tomas Gonzalez (1) Sara Hedayat (2), Virginie Hoel (2), and Alain Cappy (2)
Affiliations : (1) Applied Physics Department, University of Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca, Spain; (2) CAMPUS Haute-Borne CNRS IRCICA, Parc Scientifique de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d?Ascq, France
Resume : The development of neuron-inspired devices for energy-efficient computing requires numerical models able to reproduce the electrical behavior of neurons and axons , which is governed mainly by their biological membrane. As an alternative to the steady-state analytical models, we present a time-domain Monte Carlo simulator that reproduce the electrical performance of axons by monitoring the random natural passage of ions through the membrane. In our model, gating channels and pumps for sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions are considered in terms of the probability for a given ion to cross the membrane. Each probability is calculated by taking as a basis the Hodgkin and Huxley model  and all the quantities involved in the physical behavior of the system are updated when an event takes place. The Monte Carlo model reproduce the onset of a single potential spike and potential spike trains induced by an excess of sodium current. The results provided by our MC model will be presented at the symposium.  S.D. Ha and S. Ramanathan. J. Appl. Phys., 110, 071101 (2011).  A.L. Hodgkin and A.F. Huxley. The Journal of Physiology, 117, 500 (1952).
Authors : O. Šuch, M. Klimo, E. Linn, M.Ťapajna, P. Jančovič, K. Frohlich, A. Hamdiyah, E. Verrelli, N.T. Kemp
Affiliations : University of Žilina; RWTH Aachen; IEE Slovak Academy of Sciences; University of Hull
Resume : Complementary resistive switch  is formed by two bipolar memristors connected anti-serially. Adding a third (output) terminal to a complementary resistive switch results in a device termed complementary resistive gate . Two distinct uses have been proposed for the gate. First, it may be used for analog fuzzy computations (MIN and MAX gates) , when applied signals typically significantly exceed memristor’s switching threshold. Secondly, the gate was proposed in a communication scenario , where applied signals are below the threshold. In our contribution we propose a third application that assumes characteristics of both approaches. Much like in the second application, most of the time the gate will serve as a communication device delivering signals/energy to the output terminal. However, depending on relative timing of signals, the states of constituent memristors will change, like they do in fuzzy computation. We call this phenomenon coincidence adaptation. This behavior has parallels in neural circuits and may serve as a basis of passive pattern recognition subsystems complementing spiking neural networks. Our results are based on simulations done with ECM based model and experiments with ECM and metal oxide nanostructures. Finally, we review desirable memristor characteristics supporting the proposed application of the gates.  E.Linn, R. Rosezin, C. Kugeler, R. Waser, Complementary resistive switches for passive nanocrossbar memories, Nature Materials, 2010  M. Klimo, O. Such, Memristors can implement fuzzy logic, arXiv:1110.2074  O. Such, E.Linn, M. Klimo, P. Jancovic, M. Fratrik, K. Frohlich, On passive permutation circuits, IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, 2015
Authors : Alessio Paris, Simone Taioli
Affiliations : Applied Research on Energy Systems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Trento, Italy; Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic and European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT*), Bruno Kessler Foundation & Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIFPA-INFN), Trento, Italy
Resume : The structure, energetics and transport properties of TiO2 anatase with different densities of oxygen vacancies are studied by computer simulations using a variety of techniques ranging from first-principles to Monte Carlo methods. This investigation is motivated by the recent development of memristive electronic devices, usually made of metal oxides in which arrays of defects control the resistance switching mechanisms. Anatase, in particular, emerged as one of the most promising candidate for memristor design. However, the microscopic behavior of these multi-vacancy systems is not yet entirely understood. This work investigates electronic and transport properties of TiO2 anatase structures containing from one to several oxygen vacancies both in neutral and charged states by adding an Hubbard-like term (U) to the the Generalized Gradient approximation to the electron density (GGA+U). Calculated observables are the formation energy of oxygen defects, vacancy cohesion energies and Local Density of States for different vacancy distributions. Furthermore, to demonstrate the correspondence between energetically stable states and the conductive phase of memristors, electron transport is studied first via the integrated local density of states (ILDOS), and then within a tight-binding approximation to density functional theory. Finally, a Kinetic Monte Carlo model of the conductive channel formation in bulk anatase, based on the nudged-elastic band (NEB) calculations of the vacancy diffusion rates, is reported.
Authors : Alexander Sboev, Danila Vlasov, Alexey Serenko, Roman Rybka, Ivan Moloshnikov
Affiliations : MEPhI National Research Nuclear University, Moscow, Russia; National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow, Russia
Resume : Despite the significant number of works devoted to creating practically effective methods for spiking neuron networks learning, still none has been developed based only on the current knowledge of biological neural systems operating rules, namely, on STDP, a biologically inspired long-term plasticity model. From this point of view we consider different spiking neuron models (Leaky Integrate-and-Fire, Izhikevich, Hodgkin-Huxley), STDP forms (all-to-all and several nearest-neighbour spike pairing rules), ways of input coding, unsupervised and supervised learning implementations. With the help of spiking neurons simulator the influence of the amount of correlation between input and output spike trains on the learnability by different STDP rules is examined. Combined learning schemes, involving artificial and spiking neuron models, are discussed. We analyze a few examples of these learning mechanisms implementations and demonstrate how the neural network can recognize patterns of neural activities in dependence of their mutual correlation.
Authors : Qurat-ul-Ann (Anna) Mirza, Yogesh N. Joglekar
Affiliations : Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)
Resume : Since 2008, memristive systems have attracted tremendous attention, in part due to the similarities between their I-V characteristics and those of ion channels in biological neuron. A minimal model of such a neuron, obtained via dynamical-systems approach, implies that two types of memristors, namely sodium and potassium channels, are necessary for the generation of an action potential. Similar conclusions apply to thin-film memristors: a memristor response can exhibit action potential only its dynamics depend upon two or more internal state variables. We theoretically and numerically nvestigate the properties of networks of such memristors. Starting with metal-oxide memristors and thermistors as ingradients, we obtain the current-voltage characteristics of memristor networks with different topologies, including nearest-neighbor couplings and distant-couplings. We then investigate the power spectrum of such networks in the presence of an AC stimulus. Our results provide a detailed theoretical understanding of excitable memristor networks, and their dependence on the network topologies.
Authors : M. Riou,1 J. Torrejon,1 F. Abreu Araujo,1 G. Khalsa,2 M. Stiles,2 S. Tsunegi,3 A. Fukushima,3 H. Kubota,3 S. Yuasa,3 D.Querlioz,2 V. Cros,1 J. Grollier1
Affiliations : 1 Unité mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, Palaiseau, France 2 Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, NIST, Gaithersburg, USA. 3 Spintronic Research Center, AIST, Tsukuba, Japan. 4 Institut d’Électronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, Orsay, France
Resume : For many tasks, such as visual recognition or time series prediction, the brain functions in a much faster way and with a drastically lower power consumption than any classical computers. In the context of big data, an alternative approach to classical computers is to build hardware neural networks to process the information. Reservoir computing  is a recently introduced type of neural network, which was already implemented in optics. These setups use the transient dynamics of non-linear oscillators to process an input. Reservoir computing has demonstrated its high efficiency dealing with tasks such as spoken digit recognition or financial forecasting. Our recent research interest is focused on using non-linear magnetic microwave oscillators  for Reservoir computing. In comparison with optical implementations, magnetic microwave oscillators present the advantage of a nanometric size, highly tuneable non-linearity and compatibility with CMOS technology. In this talk, we will show that we obtain very promising classification results recognising unambiguously different patterns in an input signal. Our work opens the path to building dense and compact bio-inspired networks of nano-oscillators leveraging non-linear dynamics for pattern recognition.  L. Appeltant et al. Information processing using a single dynamical node as complex system. Nat. Commun. 2, 468 (2011)  N. Locatelli et al. Spin-Torque building blocks. Nat mat 13, 11-20 (2014)
Authors : Luca Ascari, Salvatore Iannotta, George Malliaras, Petra Ritter
Affiliations : Henesis CAMLIN Limited, Italy; CNR-Imem, Parma, Italy; Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, Gardanne, France; Charité The Bernstein Center Berlin, Germany
Resume : Outlook: perspectives and initiatives on "Adaptive materials: devices and systems towards unconventional computing, sensing, bio-electronics and robotics"
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Head of Department of Bioelectronics, 880 Avenue des Mimet, 13541 Gardanne, Francemalliaras@emse.fr
Strada Budellungo 2 43123 Parma Italy+39 0521 1854211
Research Group Brain Modes Department of Neurology Charité, Charitéplatz 1 10117 Berlin Germany Office: Department of Neurology+49 30 450 560005
Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism Parco Area delle Scienze 37A Parma, 43124 Italy+39 0521 269225