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2014 Fall Meeting

NANO BIOMATERIALS

E

Bio-nanomaterials and regenerative medicine

The symposium "Bio-nanomaterials and regenerative medicine" focuses on the design, characterization and modelling of bio-inspired nanomaterials

Scope

This session focusses on medical applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Harnessing the dynamic interaction between nanostructured materials and biosystems is the chief target of multi-disciplinary research at the interface of nanotechnology and biology with huge emerging markets in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine products. Target procedure areas with high volume and/or high growth potential include neurologic, orthopaedic, organ regeneration, cardiovascular, urologic, and wound care. However, the details of the product-body interaction are still poorly understood, especially at the molecular scale, the scale at which the most promise exists for rational design of cheaper, safer, more effective materials. Talks will range from fundamental studies up to more applied research into macroscale materials design and characterisation. A particular focus is the use of modelling and microscopy/spectroscopy to characterise the structure, dynamics and energetics of the surfaces and interfaces involved in synthesis of biomaterials. This will include examination of the details of the biomolecule-scaffold interaction up to the scale of the full cell-coated material, paying particular attention to novel rationally designed materials. More applied research to be presented will address both scientific and technological aspects of medical applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials, including bioreactor design and operation.

Hot topics to be covered by the symposium

The field of bio-nanomaterials is becoming one of the largest and rapidly growing research areas. Over the last years, important progress has been achieved in the design of nano-scale materials that are capable of performing multimodal functions in biological environment. The current status of this research field has been made possible due to interdisciplinary contributions from the material science, chemistry, physics, biology and medicine. Clearly, the future developments in this field, including practical applications of the multifunctional nanoparticles in biomedicine, will depend on mutually beneficial scientific exchange and contributions from the biomedical and exact sciences. Thus, this symposium will provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussions on new ideas in research and technology of multifunctional bio-nanomaterials towards their potential biomedical applications.

  • Theranostics - merging of nanotechnologies with biology towards diagnostics and therapeutics at the molecular level
  • Novel approaches to drug delivery, including nano-reactors
  • Nano-bio-interfaces and nano-scale approaches to study bio-nano interactions
  • Tissue engineering platforms
  • Surface nano-patterning of polymers for mass-sensitive biodetection
  • Bio-functionalization of nanoscale materials
  • Multifunctional magnetic nano-particles
  • Nano-containers for smart drug delivery - light- or magnetic field- triggered drug delivery and release
  • Biomimetic materials

List of invited speakers:

Tentative list of scientific committee members:

Symposium organized in collaboration with the Division of Physics in Life Sciences of the European Physical Society and its Board.

In addition :

  • Cornelia Palivan (University of Basel, Switzerland)
  • Giovanni Dietler (EPFL, Switzerland)
  • Paolo de Los Rios (EPFL, Switzerland)
Start atSubject View AllNum.
17:30
Authors : G. Popescu-Pelin1, E. Axente1, F. Sima1, I. Iordache1, C. Nita1, A. Visan1, I. Zgura2, O.L. Rasoaga2, C.S. Breazu2, A. Stanculescu2, I.N. Mihailescu1, G. Socol1
Affiliations : 1 National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania 2 National Institute of Materials Physics, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania

Resume : Biodegradable polymers properties are preserved in vivo for a limited period of time and then slowly degrade into materials that can become soluble or are metabolized and excreted from the body. Simple and mixtures of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in different ratios (1:3, 1:1, 3:1) combined with lysozyme (Lys) have been deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and dip-coating to produce thin films on titanium, glass and silicon substrates. We identify the optimum deposition conditions with respect to the structural, morphological, and wettability properties of films. In the case of MAPLE technique, PCL/PLGA/Lys composite films were deposited at 500 mJ/cm2 laser fluence, while for dip-coating the withdrawal speed was set at 100 mm/min. SEM investigations exhibited a dependence of surface morphology on the chemical composition, polymeric mixture ratio and deposition method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry evidenced that the chemical composition of coatings deposited by both methods was conserved whereas the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the presence of diffraction peaks of PCL only. Depending on the polymeric mixture ratio and deposition method, wettability tests performed on the polymeric coatings showed a either hydrophobic or hydrophilic behavior. Also, the kinetics of polymer degradation and protein release was evaluated with respect to polymeric blend ratio and deposition methods.

E.E.2
17:30
Authors : A. Visan1, M. Miroiu1, N. Stefan1, C. Nita1, G. Dorcioman1, I. Zgura2, O.L. Rasoga2, C.S. Breazu2, Iuliana Urzica1, L. Sima3 , L.Ivan4, A. Stanculescu2, R. Cristescu1, G. Socol1, I.N. Mihailescu1
Affiliations : 1 National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania 2 National Institute of Materials Physics, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania 3 Institute of Biochemistry, Splaiul Independentei 296, Bucharest, Romania 4 Institute of Biology and Cellular Pathology "N. Simionescu", Bucharest,Romania

Resume : In this study we report on the polycaprolactone (PCL)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PCL-PEG-lysozyme deposition on titanium and (100) double side polished silicon substrates via Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) and dip coating (DC) techniques. PCL is known for its excellent tensile properties, flexibility and biodegradability while PEG is recognized for its good biocompatibility. The aim was to obtain composite coatings with different biodegradation kinetics for controlled protein release. The physico-chemical properties of the composite coatings were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results proved a stoichiometric and functional transfer of the deposited polymeric systems. For composite films, we noted a summation of PEG and PCL diffraction peaks, indicating that both polymers can crystallize and form distinct crystallites. Wettability studies proved that the composite films exhibit highly hydrophilic surfaces and these first results provide the evidence for controlled protein release applications, where degradation rate may be tuned. Degradation testes were performed in stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution at 37 °C in a dynamic regime using a bioreactor which simulates the flow of blood in our vessels. In vitro cell culture tests on PCL-PEG and PCL-PEG-lysozyme films showed appropriate viability, good spreading and normal cell morphology. The release tests of lysozyme, along with all investigations essentially signify that these biodegradable composite coatings are potential promising candidates for local protein delivery applications.

E.E.3
17:30
Authors : D Kolbuk(1), P Denis(1), E Choinska(2), P Sajkiewicz(1)
Affiliations : (1) Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland *email: dkolbuk@ippt.gov.pl (2) Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141 02-507 Warsaw, Poland

Resume : Introduction In the case ofsemicrystallinepolymers, crystallinity is the parameter determining their physical properties. Some research groups indicate influence of crystallinity on cells response during in- vitro study [ - ]. Commonly used methods of three-dimensional scaffolds formation do not take into account crystallinity optimisation. The aim of proposed presentation is to evaluate the effect of molecular weight and solvent on crystallinity and crystal size in case of polycaprolactone (PCL) films. Methodology Material: PCL with Mn:10, 45 and 80k g/mol (Sigma Aldrich) was used. As a solvents: Hexafluoroisopropanole, HFIP (Iris Biotech GmbH.), Acetic Acid, AA and Dichloromethane, DCM (Avantor and Chempol respectively) were used.Methods: Films were prepared from the PCL with different molecular weight using various solvents differing in evaporation rate.Characterization: Films were analyzedusing polarizing-interference microscopy (MPI) allowing characterization ofspherulitiesmorphology. Degree of crystallinity was analysedby differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and comparatively bywide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Results and Discussion It is evident from MPI observations that conditions of PCL films preparation affect the morphology of spherulites. All samples were birefringent, indicating in general crystallinity, being different for particular samples.Sphorulities size depends on Mw and solvent type; sharp Maltese cross was observed on few samples. Crystallinity of PCL films determined from DSC measurements was in the range 0,45-0,68 depending on solvent and polymer Mn used. Generally crystallinity of films formed from DCM is lower than from AA as a result of lower boiling point of DCM. Additional annealing enables increase in crystallinity to 0,8. WAXS crystallinity correlates with values determined by DSC. Changes of full width of half maximum(FWHM) of crystal peaks indicate variations of crystal size and/or defectsdepending on molecular weight and solvent what correlates with MPI observations also. Conclusions Spherulitesshape and crystallinity are strongly dependent on Mnand solvent type. Structural parameters of films decide on Young modulus and elasticity in terms of applications.

E.E.7
17:30
Authors : Emilia MAZGAJCZYK, Bogdan DYBAŁA, Edward CHLEBUS
Affiliations : Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Wrocław

Resume : Tissue engineering is one of the most interdisciplinary fields of science applied to repair or replace damaged or diseased human tissue and organs. Often it is the treatment of large bone defects caused by, for example, tumor which the body is unable to regenerate itself. This is realized by designing and manufacturing tissue scaffolds which are a 3D construction that provides a template for tissue regeneration. Scaffold should, as closely as possible, imitate the extracellular matrix architecture and allow the cells to behave like in stem tissue. Application of Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology enables full control of the expected geometry of the scaffold architecture and ensures high repeatability of the manufacturing process. RP technologies are the group of advanced manufacturing processes, in which model can be built layer by layer directly from computer data. Taking into account the complex shape of the spatial structure with an open porosity, detailed characterization is important. Following features should be characterised: surface quality, total porosity and mechanical and physical properties. Very interesting solution seems to be the direct production of functional structures designed to rebuild damaged tissues using RP technology. This study describes Rep-Rap technology which is based on Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Optimization of the manufacturing process, including selection of appropriate process parameters, is very important from the point of view of producing structures of such as complex geometry. The aim of this study was to determine the parameters affecting the mechanical properties of constructed scaffolds. The scaffolds with different porosity were made with Rep-Rap technology. The material that was chosen for the analysis was biodegradable polymer – polylactide (PLA). The purpose of present work is discussing the impact of porosity on compressive strength of scaffolds.

E.E.8
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Biomimetics and regenerative medicine II : Damien Thompson
10:30
Authors : Mitsuhiro Terakawa, Shuhei Yada, Kazumasa Ariyasu, Akimichi Shibata
Affiliations : Keio University

Resume : We present high-precision laser processing of biodegradable polymers toward applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. We have been studying enhanced optical near field and scattered far field excited by femtosecond laser pulse. The interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse and biodegradable microcapsules generate an enhanced-ultrafast optical field in the vicinity or inside multiple biodegradable microcapsules. Nanoperforation of hollow polymer microcapsules was demonstrated by the optical field generated at the shell of the capsules by the irradiation of unfocused infrared femtosecond laser without any doping with metals or dyes. The present method has the potential to realize novel light-triggered controlled drug release. The interference of scattered far field and incident waves enables to fabricate ripple structure on a biodegradable polymer surface. We demonstrated ripple structure formation on a biodegradable polymer, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), film by using femtosecond laser pulses. High-spatial frequency periodic structure whose periodicity is approximately 100 nm was fabricated on the surface of PLLA film, which would contribute to scaffold fabrication in tissue engineering by controlling cell adhesive properties on the surface of biodegradable polymers.

E.4.1
11:35
Authors : Brian J. Rodriguez
Affiliations : School of Physics & Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland

Resume : Piezoelectric materials, including collagenous biomaterials, organic bioinspired peptide nanomaterials, deoxyribonucleic acid nucleobase crystals, and transparent biocompatible ferroelectric substrates have numerous potential applications in sensing, energy harvesting, and tissue engineering. Recent progress in understanding the origin and role of piezoelectricity and possible ferroelectricity in such functional biomaterials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and the biocompatibility and proliferation of osteoblast cells on ferroelectric lithium niobate crystals will be discussed. The role of pH and moisture content on electromechanical coupling in type I collagen and piezoelectricity in type II collagen will be presented. Thymine and other nucleobase microcrystals grown from solution during evaporation also exhibit piezoelectricity, and in some cases contain domains which appear to switch via external field, hinting at possible ferroelectric properties. Much like the structurally-similar peptide nanotubes, dried peptide hydrogels are also found to be piezoelectric. In addition, ferroelectric lithium niobate, which has a permanent polarization (in the z-cut direction) is reported as a novel platform to study the effect of surface charge for improving osseointegration via cell proliferation and mineralization assays. The outlook for future measurements and applications of piezoelectric biomaterials and biocompatible ferroelectric substrates will be outlined.

E.4.3
16:20
Authors : Izabela Kamińska1,*, K. Fronc1, B. Sikora1, M. Szewczyk2, T. Wojciechowski1, A. Konopka3, W. Zaleszczyk1, R. Minikayev1, W. Paszkowicz1, P. Dziawa1, K. Sobczak1, M. Mouawad4, A. Siemiarczuk4, M. Kaliszewski5, M. Włodarski5, J. Młyńczak5, K. Kopczyński5,K. Ciszak6, D. Piątkowski6, S. Maćkowski6, G. Wilczyński3, P. Stępień2,7 and D. Elbaum1
Affiliations : 1Institute of Physics PAS, al. Lotnik?w, 02-668 Warsaw; 2Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Warsaw, ul. Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland; 3Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, 3 Pasteur Street, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland; 4Fast Kinetics Application Laboratory, Photon Technology International, 347 Consortium Court, London, Ontario, N6E 2S8 Canada; 5Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland; 6Institute of Physics Nicolaus Copernicus University Toruń, Department of Optoelectronics, ul. Grudziądzka 5, 87-100 Toruń; 7Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, ul. Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland; *Corresponding author: ikaminska@ifpan.edu.pl

Resume : Nanoparticles emitting light with energy higher than the excitation radiation are gaining attention as a new generation of potential probes for many important applications in biomedicine. In particular, they can be applied for the nanoscale imaging of biological objects. Presence of Yb ions, as a sensitizer, improves the efficiency of the Er emission in the upconversion (UC) process. However, the efficiency of the green emission process of the Er-Yb doped oxides (Er3 , 550 nm, 2H11/2→4I15/2, 2S3/2→4I15/2) is still relatively low. There is a need to find a way to increase the efficiency resulting from the upconversion process. In this work we demonstrate that this aim can be achieved through co-doping with Mo. For the preparation of the oxide materials Gd2O3:Er,Yb,Mo we applied a homogeneous precipitation method in the presence of urea followed by a high temperature (900 oC) annealing at air. The advantages of this method consist in a low temperature of the synthesis and in a relatively low production cost. As a product, we obtained spherical nanoparticles with sizes from 50 to 150 nm, and desired enhanced green emissions due to higher efficiency of energy transfer from Yb3 - MoO42- dimer to Er than in the case of pure Yb doping. To investigate their efficacy, these nanoparticles were used as luminescent labels in selected biological materials. Upconverting, non-functionalized, Gd2O3:Er,Yb,Mo nanoparticles, incubated with HeLa and glial astrocytes cell, were endocytosed. Acknowledgements: The research was partially supported by the EU within ERD Fund, through the Innovative Economy grant (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08) and by the grant from the Polish National Centre for Research and Development NR13004704, the Polish National Science Center NN 303 663 940 and the Center of Excellence. This work has been done in the NanoFun laboratories co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund within the Innovation Economy Operational Programme, the Project No. POIG.02.02.00-00-025/09/. This research has been co-financed with the European Union funds by the European Social Fund and the project WELCOME Hybrid nanostructures as a stepping stone towards efficient artificial photosynthesis

E.6.2
16:40
Authors : I. Negut 1,2, G. Popescu – Pelin 1, C. Ristoscu 1, L. Floroian 3, I. N. Mihailescu 1
Affiliations : 1. National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-77125, MG-36, Magurele-Ilfov, Romania 2. Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania, 077125 3. Department of Physics, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500036 Brasov, Romania

Resume : We report on the nanostructured composite coatings with bioactive silicate glass and poly (methyl-methacrylate) for biomimetic implant applications. Bioglasses and composite bioglasses – poly(methyl-methacrylate) thin films films grown onto medical grade stainless steel 316L substrates using a pulsed laser UV KrF* (248 nm wavelength, 25 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz frequency repetition rate) excimer laser source. We aimed for the elimination of the inconvenience caused by corrosion of stainless steel implants in human body by coating with thin films of bioactive glasses and/ or with polymer-bioactive glasses nanostructures. For the preparation of simple PLD targets, we selected two types of bioglasses, the difference between them consisting in the SiO2 content, which is slightly below (in the case of BG57, containing 56.5% SiO2, 11% Na2O, 3% K2O, 15% CaO, 8.5% MgO, 6% P2O5 in wt.%) and respectively above (in the case of BG61 containing 61.1% wt SiO2, 10.3% wt Na2O, 2.8% wt K2O, 12.6% wt CaO, 7.2% wt MgO, 6% wt P2O5). The threshold value of 60% corresponds to significant changes in bioactivity and degradability. The PLD depositions were carried out in a dynamic flux of oxygen. The best regime of deposition was found for the next conditions: 13 Pa O2 pressure, 400°C substrate temperature and 10,000 subsequent laser pulses for each film. PMMA (poly (methyl-methacrylate)) exhibits a good impact strength, superior to glass and for the MAPLE depositions we combined it with bioglasses and the composite targets were suspended in a 3% solution in chloroform. For comparation, we prepared MAPLE targets from simple PMMA polymer. Our intention is to produce biomimetic coatings more resistant to scratching by adding to PMMA bioglass particles which also exhibit the ability to chemically bond to both bone and tissue. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements evidenced for bare OL an intensive corrosion, but BG57 and BG57 - PMMA coated OL samples showed a substantially higher resistance to corrosion than bare OL. The best shielding was demonstrated in case of BG61-PMMA coating. The nanostructured PMMA-BG61/316L coating ensures the preservation of the stainless steel surface bioactivity and serves as an efficient shield against corrosion. Our results suggest the use of stainless steel coated with bioglass-based and especially with PMMA-bioglass laser deposited thin films as a challenging alternative for production of reliable and cheap human implants and prostheses.

E.6.3
17:00
Authors : Raksha S. Pandit1, Swapnil C. Gaikwad1, Gauravi A. Agarkar1, Aniket K. Gade1, 2 and Mahendra K. Rai1
Affiliations : 1 Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India. 2 Present Address- Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA.

Resume : Curcumin is one of the polyphenols, which has been known for its medicinal use since long time. Curcumin shows poor solubility and low absorption, and therefore, use of curcumin as nanoparticles is beneficial due to their greater solubility and absorption. The main aim of the present study was the formation of curcumin nanoparticles, evaluation of antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria, and formulation of curcumin nanoparticles-based cream. We synthesized curcumin nanoparticles by sonication method. The synthesis of curcumin nanaoparticles was assessed for their solubility in water and by UV- visible spectrophotometry. Further, the nanopaticles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nanoparticle Tracking and Analysis (NTA) and Zeta Potential analysis. In vitro antibacterial activity of curcumin nanoparticles was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cream containing curcumin nanoparticles was found to be effective against human bacterial pathogens and hence can be used for the dermatological bacterial infections.

E.6.4

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Symposium organizers
Andrzej SienkiewiczInstitute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), Faculty of Basic Sciences (FSB), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

+41 21 693 4337
+41 22 693 4470
andrzej.sienkiewicz@epfl.ch
Damien ThompsonUniversity of Limerick Department of Physics and Energy

Lee Maltings, Cork Ireland

+353 61 202 578
+353 21 202 423
Damien.Thompson@ul.ie
Marek CieplakPolish Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics

Al. Lotników 32/46 02-668 Warsaw Poland

+48 22 116 3365
+48 22 843 0926
mc@ifpan.edu.pl