Materials for Advanced ElectronicsBB
Paper electronics: a new challenge for materials a new opportunity for devices II
This symposium aims to join the research community working in paper based devices such as transistors, electrochromics, sensors or thin film batteries, among others, posing an innovative vision for new concepts and applications. This includes topics from new materials synthesis and new processing techniques.
Paper Electronics represent a relative new and radical concept that aims to combine the use of paper as a part of electronic components or devices. This concept is radically different of the conventional Electronic Paper, where a display shows information, being at the same time flexible and bendable as normal paper. So, the big challenge is to engineer paper in order to allow its usage on electronic devices, acting either as substrate or even as an active part of it.
This symposium tries to bring together the research community dealing with paper manufacturing aiming their functionalization, but also scientists dealing with conventional electronic materials trying to adapt them and the processing techniques to be used in combination with paper.
So, the scope of the symposium includes new technologies for paper manufacturing (control fibbers size, porosity, fillers, etc), new paper coatings (organic, inorganic or hybrid), paper surface fictionalization (plasma or gas treatments, for instance) but also introduction of new materials (conductors, semiconductor insulators, electrochromic, batteries electrodes) and innovative cheap manufacturing technologies on large area (inkjet and roll-to-roll processes). This will extend the concept of printed electronics. Then these processes must be fully compatible with heterogeneous integration of several functions to produce a more complex and/or autonomous devices with great added value respect to traditional solutions.
Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:
Paper manufacturing for electronics:
- Surface treatments
- Physical and chemical deposition techniques, in general
- Chemical synthesis
- Inkjet and screen printing
Materials (organic, inorganic or hybrid):
- Other sensing materials
Characterization, modelling and simulation of materials and devices on paper substrates
- Thin film batteries
- Sensing systems
- Energetically autonomous systems
List of invited speakers:
- Aline Rougier (ICMCB, Bordeaux France) – Electrochromics on paper
- Scott Philips (Pennsylvania State University, USA) - Combining Electronics and Paper to Enable Quantitative Point-of-Need Assays
- Ronald Osterbacka (Abo Akademi University, Finland) – Logic circuitry on paper using ion-modulated OFETs
- Jaehwan Kim (Inha University) – Paper-tronics
- Sven Forsberg (Mid Sweden University) - Paper-based supercapacitors
- Jesper Edberg (Linköping University) - Nanocellulose-PEDOT Composites and their Applications
- Candace Chan (Arizona State University) - Foldable Paper-Based Lithium-ion Batteries
Selected paper will be published in Physica Status Solidi (a) – applications and materials science, and additional ones in Physica Status Solidi (c) – current topics."
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Authors : Daesik Kang, Mansoo Choi, Tae-il Kim
Affiliations : Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.; School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, Republic of.
Resume : Most of animals and insects have high developed sensory systems. Especially, spider has extremely sensitive organs to detect force and vibration. Their sensory system is based on a slit system embedded in the exoskeleton. Here, we mimic their sensory system and demonstrate a spider-inspired artificial slit sensor that makes use of ultrasensitive displacement readout using a nanoscale metal crack junction. This device achieves pressure sensitivity of ~10 kPa^-1 and an acceleration resolution of 100 μg Hz^-1/2, bandwidth greater than 2 kHz and a dynamic range of greater than 40 dB. Also, the devices which we demonstrate are mechanically flexible and shape-deformable so that it can be used on human skin with multi-pixel arrays. The most notable thing is that the sensory system is applicable for voice as well as speech recognition by catching the fine epidermal vibration signal. We believe our approach to forming ultra-sensitive epidermal electronic system for vibration detector and it finally offers a unique avenue for solving the ?cocktail party problem? in the future.
Authors : R. Schennach, B. Friedel
Affiliations : Graz University of Technology Institute of Solid State Physics
Resume : Conductive paper has been made by adding carbon nanotubes and other conducting nano materials to the pulp fiber suspension. In another approach nano fibrillated cellulose films (also called micro fibrillated cellulose) have been made electrical conductive using metallic nanowires and carbon nanotubes. In the first case the whiteness of the paper suffered dramatically especially when carbon nanotubes are used. In the second case the transparency of the nano fibrillated cellulose films decreases markedly with the loading of nano materials. In addition, nano fibrillated cellulose is not available in large scales and requires a lot of energy in production. In the research presented here we used regenerated cellulose films as substrates. The advantage of these films is that the raw material cellulose is available in a large scale, as it is produced industrially. The regenerated cellulose films are made by spin coating trimethylsilylcellulose (TMSC) onto silicon wafer substrates and subsequent regeneration with gaseous hydrochloric acid. The free standing regenerated cellulose films are coated with silver nanowires to obtain transparent conductive cellulose films. The procedure of film formation is presented. The electrical- and optical properties of the uncoated and coated regenerated cellulose films will be discussed. It will be shown that silver nanowire coated regenerated cellulose films have electrical and optical properties that are comparable to indium tin oxide (ITO). However, in contrast to ITO and thin ITO films on plastic substrates, the regenerated cellulose films are completely flexible.
Authors : Kirill Arapov, Robert Abbel, Corne Rentrop, Gijsbertus de With, Heiner Friedrich
Affiliations : Kirill Arapov, Gijsbertus de With, Heiner Friedrich - Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Helix building, Eindhoven University of Technology Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ, Eindhoven, The Netherlands E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ; Robert Abbel - Holst Centre - TNO High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands email@example.com; ; Corne Rentrop - TNO Eindhoven De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven, The Netherlands firstname.lastname@example.org
Resume : Solution-processing of raw graphite to graphene and subsequent printing on paper is aimed at low-cost, high-volume applications such as RFID devices, thus, improving their recyclability. We have demonstrated the feasibility of ink-jet printing of graphene-based inks on paper substrates (K. Arapov et al. Farad. Discuss., 173, 2014). An interesting feature of paper for printing is the filtration of the ink, which leaves the micrometer-sized 2D sheets stacked on top rather than penetrating into the pores, as seen for metal inks. This leads to less ink spreading, thus higher printing definition and a more efficient use of the conductive particles, improving cost-effectiveness. An aspect of our approach is to avoid non-conductive intermediates, e.g., graphene oxide, during processing to maximize the conductive properties of the 2D colloids together with the exfoliated state in the suspension/ink. We now extend this work to high graphene content inks suitable for screen printing, which have shown for bar coated films sheet resistances of less than 5 Ω/□/1 mil, which brings replacement of metal leads in RFID devices, photovoltaic backsheets and other applications closer within reach.
Printed sensors & systems : Scott Phillips
Authors : Anastasia Delattre, Véronique Morin
Affiliations : CENTRE TECHNIQUE DU PAPIER, UST Printing Technologies and Printability
Resume : The objective of the A3PLEc project is to develop the next generation of sustainable paper-based products with specific autonomous functionalities aiming at interacting with their users and/or reporting changes in their environment. A major focus is placed on the development of new and flexible manufacturing concepts based on printing technology to produce large area hybrid organic/inorganic papers with improved performance at competitive cost. To this aim, the A3PLE project is focused on 1) the integration of recent advances in functional materials (paper, fibres, inks) and functional components (battery, sensors, display, memory) and their production process upscale and 2) the development of innovative, flexible and cost-effective manufacturing processes based on printing and embedding techniques for the integration of all these functional components on the smart paper substrate.
Authors : Mats Sandberg(a); Anurak Sawatdee(a); Ingemar Petermann(a), Per-Åke Turesson(b), Hjalmar Granberg(b)
Affiliations : a) Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Bredgatan 33, 601 17 Norrköping, Sweden b) Innventia AB, Drottning Kristinas väg 61, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
Resume : Composite pulps of tetrapodal zinc oxide whiskers (ZnO-Ts) and cellulose have been found to form paper sheets by scalable manufacturing methods. To probe the optoelectronic properties of the so formed composite paper sheets, the UV-sensing properties of the composite paper were investigated. The composite sheets were found to be suitable as substrates for screen printing, and screen printing was used to create a UV-sensor by printing an interdigit electrode pattern with a carbon ink. Composite papers were manufactured with different grammage and the effect of paper making additives on the UV-sensing properties was investigated. The responsivity of the composite paper UV-sensor typically exceeds 0.1 A/W at the responsivity maximum at 384 nm. The UV-sensing function demonstrates the functionality of the composite papers, which together with scalable low cost manufacturing methods indicate a new route to low cost large area devices.
Authors : F. Villani,1 F. Loffredo,1 I. A. Grimaldi,1,2 T. Polichetti,1 E. Massera,1 G. Di Francia,1 C. Minarini,1
Affiliations : 1-ENEA Research Center, P.le E. Fermi, 1 80055 Portci (Na), Italy 2-IREA-CNR, Via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Naples, Italy
Resume : Chemiresistors based on polymer nanocomposite (PNCs) are particularly attractive for high stability to different gases and vapours and its potential operation at room temperature. The operating mechanism of these chemical sensors is based on the disrupting of the conductive paths upon exposure to the analytes that results in a change of the electrical properties. PNCs can be easily deposited by solution processable techniques including inkjet printing (IJP), a rapidly emerged technology for its patterning capability, efficient use of material, reduced waste products, low cost of the process, and its potential for printing on both nonflexible and flexible substrates. In the present work, VOCs (volatile organic compounds) chemical sensors were fabricated by printing a polystyrene/carbon black-based nanocomposite on different substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, glossy-paper, glass). The effect of the substrate morphology (surface energy, roughness) on the printed product quality, in terms of wettability and adhesion, and, hence, on the device performances was analyzed. Surface treatments through oxygen and fluorine plasmas were investigated to improve the wetting of the printed droplet of the sensitive material so optimizing the uniformity and the reproducibility of the printed layers. By overlapping multiple layers of sensing material, the amount of the surface-volume ratio PS/CB was correlated to the performances of the sensors to acetone and ethanol analytes.
Devices : Sven Forsberg
Authors : Aline Rougier, Abdelaadim Danine, Laura Manceriu, Cyril Faure
Affiliations : CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux UPR 9048, F 33600 Pessac France
Resume : Nowadays electrochromic devices, characterized by a reversible change in optical properties under an electrical stimulation, have entered the market of electronic paper. In this presentation, we report, novel design, fabrication and characterization of printed electrochromic devices, ECDs, on paper substrate. The simplification of a 5-layer-battery-type architecture results from the use of a metallic layer both as electronic conductor and counter electrode, (referred as 4-layer ECDs) while a further step was achieved by using in addition a conductive and electrochromic material as working electrode (referred as 3-layer ECDs). 4-layer ECD, using lithium-based ionic liquid membrane electrolyte and a combination of silver metal and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) based materials, shows a color change from light to deep blue, for an operational potential lower than 1 V. Further optimization of the electrolyte layer in composition and processing leads to printed ECDs, successfully colored using the power of a smart phone offering an interesting counterfeit tool. Acknowledgements : The authors wish to thank the ANR PEPS for financial support.
Authors : Heribert Kopeinik, Robert Schennach, Jan Gallik, Harald Plank and Bettina Friedel*
Affiliations : Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Austria; Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Austria; Department of Wood, Pulp and Paper, Institute of Polymer Materials, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic; Institute for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Austria; Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Austria
Resume : Wood cellulose natural, abundant, inexpensive, bio-degradable desirable properties for a substrate material for flexible organic electronics. Still, while the use of paper in simple device structures like capacitors or conductors is no obstacle, its applicability for more advanced systems, like thin film diode architectures is challenging. Common approach is the use of smoothing fillers and plastic coatings before actual diode deposition. Unquestionably the natural structure of the material is lost in that process. Here, we present an approach, which allows the use of rough unmodified kraft pulp fiber networks as carrier of a diode architecture. Silver nanowires are wrapped around the cellulose fibers, adsorbed to their surface by its naturally present hydroxyl groups. This structure forms the semi-transparent anode of the photovoltaic device. The organic semiconductor layer is simply deposited as a mantle to the fibers of the network. A metal back electrode is applied only to one side of the paper network. We demonstrate that realizations of cellulose fiber photovoltaic devices with P3HT:PCBM standard active layer, show decent performance with fill factors and open-circuit voltages comparable to planar substrate cells without optimization. Thereby it will be highlighted that the rough structure of wood cellulose is indeed an advantage, especially in the capture of straylight with these photovoltaic cells, compared to common planar devices.
Authors : Hugo Águas, Tiago Mateus, António Vicente, Diana Gaspar, Manuel J. Mendes, Luís Pereira, Elvira Fortunato, and Rodrigo Martins
Affiliations : CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Resume : The present development of non-wafer-based photovoltaics (PV) allows supporting thin film cells on a wide variety of low-cost recyclable and flexible substrates such as paper; thereby extending PV solutions to a broad range of consumer-oriented indoor disposable applications where autonomous energy harvesting is today a bottleneck issue. However, their fibrous structure makes it quite challenging to fabricate good-performing inorganic PV devices like thin film silicon cells on such substrates. The advances presented in this article demonstrate the viability of fabricating thin film silicon PV cells on a paper coated with a layer of a hydrophilic mesoporous (HM) material and liquid packaging cardboard (LPC). Such substrates can, not only withstand the cells production temperature (150 °C), but also provides an adequate paper sealing and surface finishing for the deposition of the cells layers. The substances released from the paper substrate were continuously monitored during the cell deposition by mass spectrometry analysis, which allowed adapting the deposition procedures to mitigate any possible contamination from the substrate. In this way, a proof of concept solar cells with a 3.4% cell efficiency (with 41% fill factor, 0.82V open circuit voltage and 10.2mA/cm2 short-circuit current density) was attained on HM paper, while efficiencies of 4% were attained for the LPC paper, opening the door to the use of paper as a reliable low cost substrate to fabricate inorganic PV cells for a plethora of indoors applications with tremendous impact in multisectorial fields such as the food, pharmacy and security.
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Transistors : Aaron Mazzeo
Authors : F. Pettersson, D. Adekanye, T. Remonen, C.E. Wilén, and R. Österbacka
Affiliations : Physics and Polymer Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology and Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University
Resume : We have created environmentally friendly low-voltage, ion-modulated transistors (IMTs) that can be fabricated successfully on a paper substrate. A range of ionic liquids (ILs) based on choline chloride (ChoCl) have been used as the electrolytic layer in the IMTs. Different organic compounds were mixed with ChoCl to create solution processable deep eutectic mixtures that are liquid or semi-liquid at room temperature. All materials chosen in in these ILs are approved as food additives as well as are included in, or digestible to be, part of most organisms biochemical cycles. In the final, solid version of the IMT, the ILs have also been solidified using a commercial binder to create printable transistor structures The semiconductor layer in the IMT is also substituted with a blend of the original semiconductor and a biodegradable polymer insulator. This reduces the amount of expensive and potentially harmful semiconductor used and speeds up the biodegradability for the more poorly biodegradable semiconducting materials: The blends also provides increased transistor performance, especially increasing the device switching speed. These environmentally friendly IMTs are then used to create ring-oscillators, logic gates and memories on paper.
Authors : Kalyan Yoti Mitra, Dana Weise, Enrico Sowade, Reinhard. R. Baumann
Affiliations : Technische Universität Chemnitz, Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz, Germany Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems ENAS, Department of Printed Functionalities, Chemnitz, Germany
Resume : Over the past decade, the inkjet printing technology has been recognized well for the manufacturing of products which include printing beyond colors. This technology provides a straight forward approach (with micrometer accuracy) to deposit judicious amount of precious functional materials (e.g. conductive, dielectric and semi-conductive inks) on the substrate over small towards relatively large areas. This also means that this technology is up-scalable and therefore it becomes a renowned process tool for fabricating active/passive devices in the field of printed and flexible electronic applications. The sector of printed and flexible electronics is always aiming at developing products which are cost intensive. In that case, the cost of the consumables (primarily substrate) is to be considered strongly. In this research work, we report on the fabrication of OTFT device on cheap coated paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. One conductive nano-particle ink, a polymeric dielectric ink, and a p-type organic-semiconductor ink contribute to develop the entire OTFTs layer stack. Furthermore, the coating on the paper has various advantages towards fabrication of the device e.g. control of the ink spreading (within and on the surface of the paper substrate) over the deposition process. This control of ink spreading can directly influence the fabrication of the inter-digitated Source/Drain electrodes for the device OTFT when top gate bottom contact architecture is considered. This will ultimately result into better manufacturing yields and electrical performances which are also the prime focus of this present research.
Authors : D. Gaspar1, L. Pereira1, A. Delattre2, D. Guerin2, E. Fortunato1 and R. Martins1
Affiliations : 1) CENIMAT-I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal 2) Centre Technique du Papier, BP 251, 38044 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
Resume : Paper electronics is a topic of huge interest due the possibility of having low cost, disposable and recyclable electronic devices. The final goal is to make paper itself an active part of such devices acting as the dielectric layer in file effect transistors (FETs), for instance. In this work we present new insights on paper substrates and devices configuration engineering aiming the development of oxide based FETs. It was observed that paper planarization and impermeability can be improved using microfibers resulting in a very compact paper structure improving the stability of the FETs under variations in the environmental conditions. From the work performed, it was observed that the gate leakage current in paper FETs can be reduced using a dense microfiber/nanofiber cellulose paper as the dielectric. Also, the stability of these devices against changes in relative humidity is improved. On other hand, if the pH of the microfiber/nanofiber cellulose pulp is modified by the addition of HCl, the saturation mobility of the devices increases up to 16 cm2 V-1 s-1, with an IONIIOFF ratio close to 10^5.
Authors : K. Wiesenhütter1, T. Schumann1, R. Zichner2, T. Gebel3, U. Wiesenhütter1, HU Richter4 and W. Skorupa1
Affiliations : 1 Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Division of Semiconductor Materials, Dresden, Germany 2 Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz, Germany 3 DTF Technology GmbH Dresden Thin Film Technology, Dresden, Germany 4 Richter & Hess, Verpackungsservice GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany
Resume : The need for novel, flexible and low-cost electronic products with functionality far beyond that offered by conventional size-restricted and rigid semiconductor devices requires a rapid development of advanced material and deposition technology concepts. One of the most promising pathways to realize this ambitious goal is printed flexible electronics. Recently, printing has successfully demonstrated its potential for manufacture of advanced low-cost products (flexible displays, thin-film solar cells, large-area sensors etc.). Importantly, by using bendable, inexpensive media (e.g.: paper-like substrates, polymer films) and high-throughput roll-to-roll processing, a significant reduction of the overall costs has been achieved. Here, we report on a successful application of millisecond thermal processing by flash lamp annealing (FLA) as a highly-attractive technique for the functionalization of copper paste screen printed on low-thermal budget paper-like media for package labelling. The effect of the FLA parameters (pulse duration, energy density) on the substrate behavior as well as on the microstructure and electrical response of the as-flashed films was studied. A significant drop of the sheet resistance of the FL-treated layers as compared to the as-printed layers was observed. As ms-FLA permits selective, near-surface heating, a damage of the sensitive substrates was avoided. The microstructure of the copper paste before and after FLA was also investigated.
Authors : Jong Mok Shin, Jonghyurk Park, Kyoung Il Lee, Ho-Kyun Jang, Jae-Sung Kim, Jun Hee Choi, Byung-Chul Lee, Gyu-Tae Kim
Affiliations : School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon, South Korea; Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam, South Korea; School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea; School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea; School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea; School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea; School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea;
Resume : Solution process is being widely studied for thin film deposition technique because of its simple process, diversity of ingredients and direct patterning. Among them, spin coating is the representative solution process, but needs an extra patterning process for selective deposition and also wastes a large portion of the material. On the other hand, inkjet printing and Electrohydrodynamic-jet (EHD-jet) printing are used as a drop-on-demand printing process without a complex photolithography process. Very recently, EHD-jet printing can provide patterning with better resolution using an electric field to make jetting droplets. In this study, tin oxide (SnO2) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using a spin coating and EHD-jet printing technique for comparing two methods. The pattern can be controlled by varying EHD jet parameters like high voltage, tip dimension, solution viscosity and pressure in the supply line. The typical pattern size of EHD jet printed tin oxide can be as small as less than ten microns and theres no coffee stain effect which is the major problem of conventional ink jetting method.
Authors : A. Palla Papavlu1,2, M. Dinescu2, T. Lippert1, A. Wokaun1
Affiliations : 1 General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland 2 Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele, ZIP 077125, Romania
Resume : Chemical sensors are very important to human health and safety, however, most of the existing sensors require complicated electronic structures and high manufacturing costs. Therefore, cheap devices on light and flexible substrates i.e. plastic or paper are required. Here, we focus on the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as sensor material which can be used in room temperature operable devices. The most important drawback for the application of CNTs is the necessity to find techniques to deposit them with high enough conductivity on the active area of a chemiresistor. Therefore, we evaluated laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) as a new approach to fabricate CNT sensor arrays, for the detection of low ammonia concentrations. For LIFT, a laser beam is focused through a transparent support onto the backside of the thin film material to be transferred (CNT). Each single laser pulse promotes the transfer of the thin film material onto a receiver substrate (paper) that is placed parallel and facing the thin film. As the functionality of the LIFT-ed sensors depends on the LIFT parameter, an optimization of the process parameters was performed first, followed by a physicochemical characterization of the active material, while the performance of the laser-printed devices was evaluated by exposure to ammonia vapors. Sensitivities in the ppb range have been achieved, thus proving the feasibility of our LIFT approach.
Authors : Luís Pereira1, Paulo Duarte1, Sónia Pereira1, Ana Pimentel1, Madalena Dionísio2, Elvira Fortunato1 and Rodrigo Martins1
Affiliations : 1CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa and CEMOP-UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal. 2REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Resume : Solid electrolytes have been extensively studied in replacement of liquid electrolytes in some important applications due to their advantages concerning safety issues. Among these, polymer electrolytes present some additional advantages due to the combination of solid yet flexible mechanical properties with good ionic conductivity, which make them suitable for the assembly of new all-solid devices including electrochromic displays, batteries and others. In this work it was designed a 100% cellulose matrix solid electrolyte, with an easier and faster synthesis route, using microwave irradiation. The fabricated a paper, modified with lithium ions, exhibits high ionic conductivity of 6.5 mS.cm-1 at room temperature, comparable with the values obtained for some organic liquid electrolytes. This material presents many advantages concerning other polymeric materials such as low-cost, high efficiency, stability and recyclability which opens the door for new and green electrochemical devices.
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