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2015 Spring

Organic and Bio-materials


The processing-structure-property nexus of organic semiconductors

Organic semiconductors enable a wide range of applications such as solar cells, thin-film transistors, sensors and thermoelectrics. Processing, the resulting nanostructure and device performance are intimately linked. This symposium aims to bring together key researchers in this field to discuss the main challenges towards the widespread application of organic electronics.




Processing of organic semiconductors from solution promises fabrication of large-area optoelectronic devices on flexible substrates at low-cost. The choice of processing parameters including thermodynamic and rheological variables, the use of additives and the surface chemistry of the substrate critically influences the resulting nanostructures. In turn, the precise nanostructure determines the optoelectronic properties of an organic semiconductor thin film. Although enormous progress has been made recently in developing new processing schemes and many applications are now at hand, with some of them on the verge of commercialisation, great challenges still have to be faced, mainly regarding:

Control of Nanostructures

For many materials systems, detailed processing schemes have been developed. However, newly synthesised materials still require tedious optimisation of processing routines, which is most often achieved by a trial-and-error approach. The development of general processing rationales is among the main issues to be addressed.

Characterisation of Nanostructures

A number of novel experimental tools have recently been developed or applied to probe the structure at all relevant length scales. Currently, much debate focuses on being able to characterise not only crystalline domains, but also disordered regions, as well as the degree of purity of the domains in bulk heterojunctions, and being able to do so in-situ and in real time.

Influence of nanostructures on Opto-Electronic Properties

Despite a steady improvement in device performance, there are still many open questions regarding the influence of the semiconductor nanostructure on charge carrier generation and recombination as well as charge transport physics. It is paramount to address these fundamental aspects in order for the field to develop further.

Upscaling to Large-Area Processing

Record device efficiencies are usually achieve for small lab-scale active layers. However, upscaling efforts usually result in an inferior performance. There is a clear need for the development of processing rationales that permit fabrication of high-performance devices architectures over large areas and at low cost. It is critical to overcome relevant scientific and technological hurdles in order to pave the way for mass production of real products.

Stability of Nanostructures

The hunt for record device efficiencies draws attention away from the long-term stability of optoelectronic devices. The nanostructure of organic semiconductor materials will have to be durable over many years in order for real applications to emerge.


Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:


The main applications that will be covered by this symposium are:

Organic Solar Cells

Organic solar cells promise significant cost-reduction in the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels, although some issues, like limited efficiencies and stability need to be addressed. Sessions of this symposium will be dedicated to these important topics especially in relation to processing of new materials, architectures and manufacturing processes for the realisation of highly efficient, largearea and flexible solar cells.

Organic Thin Film Transistors

Solution-processed organic thin film transistors will be covered, given their strong relevance to the realisation of driving elements for flexible displays (e.g. backplanes) and their application in logic micro-electronic circuits (e.g. in RFID tags). A particular focus will be on thin-film processing and the influence of nanostructure on charge-transport.

Organic Detectors and Sensors

Organic semiconductors also offer potential for cost-effective mass produced detectors and sensors, for applications as diverse as X-ray medical imaging arrays, electronic noises, or artificial skin. The symposium will focus on the appropriate control of nanostructure in order to ensure high performance as well as providing new operation schemes and synergic effects.

Organic Thermoelectric Devices

Organic semiconductors are uniquely suited to realise large-area thermoelectric devices, which are of interest for electricity generation from waste heat as well as for cooling applications. The symposium will focus on processing schemes that lead to nanostructured n- and p-type materials with a high figure of merit. Another, emphasis will be the influence of nanostructure on chargetransport processes.


Confirmed invited speakers:


  • Harald Ade (NCSU, USA)
  • Aram Amassian (KAUST, SA)
  • Mats Andersson (University of South Australia)
  • Pierre Beaujuge (KAUST, SA)
  • Martin Brinkmann (University of Strasbourg, France)
  • Michael Chabynic (UC Santa Barbara, USA)
  • Holger Frauenrath (EPFL, Switzerland)
  • Enrique Gomez (Penn State, USA)
  • Oliver Hayden (Siemens, Germany)
  • Paul Lacharmoise (CETEMMSA, Spain)
  • Lynn Loo (Princeton University, USA)
  • Christine Luscombe (University of Washington, USA)
  • Jean Manca (IMEC, Belgium)
  • Ellen Moons (Karlstad University, Sweden)
  • Jenny Nelson (Imperial College London, UK)
  • Lee Richter (NIST, USA)
  • Natalie Stingelin (Imperial College London, UK) 
  • Jun Takeya (Tokyo University, Japan)


Scientific Committee:


  • Hugo Bronstein (University College London, UK)
  • Jana Zaumseil (University of Heidelberg, Germany)
  • Roberto Pacios (Ikerlan, Spain)
  • Mario Caironi (Italian Institute of Technology, Italy)
  • Thomas Anthopoulos (Imperial College London, UK)




The papers will be published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry A and C, journals edited by the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK.  

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Authors : Yves Henri Geerts
Affiliations : Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Faculté des Sciences, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

Resume : A large diversity of π-systems exists, the vast majority of them transport electrical charges but only a few molecular structures qualify as best-performing organic semiconductors with μ ≥ 10 cm2/V.s. But charge carrier mobility is a materials and not a molecular property. One has, thus, to consider supramolecular order at all lengthscales. The best organic semiconductors self-organize into large plate-like monocrystals as evidenced in a recent review paper devoted to the question: “What Currently Limits Charge Carrier Mobility in Crystals of Molecular Semiconductors?” G. Schweicher, Y. Olivier, V. Lemaur, Y. H. Geerts, Isr. J. Chem. 2014, 54, 595-620. Due to their electronic properties but also to their favorable crystalline morphology, BTBT derivatives exhibit record charge carrier mobility above 10 cm2/V.s. We will report our latest results on the molecular and supramolecular engineering of BTBT semiconductors, including: design by theory, synthesis, crystal engineering, calculation and observation of crystal morphology, and processing into single crystal thin films for transistor fabrication

Authors : S. Mikhaylov1,2, J-L. Wojkiewicz2, A. Pud1, N. Ogurtsov1, Yu. Noskov1, N. Redon2, P. Coddeville2
Affiliations : 1 Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 50 Kharkivske Shose, 02160, Kyiv, Ukraine. 2 Mines Douai, D?partement Sciences de l?Atmosph?re et G?nie de l?Environnement (SAGE), 941 rue Charles Bourseul, F-59508 Douai, France.

Resume : The high conductivity, good stability, ease of synthesis and low price of polyaniline (PANI) gave rise to a large number of studies devoted to this important intrinsically conducting polymers representative. Significant attention in these works is paid to PANI based hybrid nanocomposites suitable for different applications. The one-pot chemical polymerization of aniline in presence of metal oxide nanoparticles and functionalized organic acids typically allows the remarkable improvement of these nanocomposites characteristics due to synergetic effect emergence. In this work we demonstrate that the acid-dopant choice influences structure, morphology and conductivity of PANI, thereby predetermining the nanocomposite properties directly at the synthesis stage. The chosen nanoparticles introduction approach not only allows high surface/volume ratio nanocomposites formation, but also enhances their gas sensing properties, stability and durability. We have found that both structure-property relationship of the PANI nanocomposites and aniline polymerization kinetics are strongly affected by surface active acids viz. dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) and lauryl sulfuric acid (LSA). The used metal oxides were represented by TiO2 (rutile and anatase forms) and SnO2 nanoparticles. The synthesized nanocomposites show enhanced sensitivity to ammonia, methylamine and trimethylamine down to sub ppm concentrations.

Authors : P.O. Schwartz, E. Zaborova, L. Biniek, T. Roland, T. Regrettier, B. Heinrich, R. Bechara, J. Leonard, P. Leveque, S. Haacke, M. Brinkmann, T. Heiser, N. Leclerc, S. Mery
Affiliations : IPCMS, ICPEES , ICS and ICube labs. from CNRS-University of Strasbourg, 67034 Strasbourg, France.

Resume : A series of monodisperse π-conjugated donor-acceptor block co-oligomers made of perylenediimide unit as electron acceptor (A) and a thienofluorene-based moiety of various lengths as electron-donor (D) will be presented. These materials are designed to self-assemble into a lamellar structure with alternated D/A layers, which constitute a promising nanostructured organization for the utilization as photo-active layer in photovoltaic devices. By exploring different molecular architectures of the block co-oligomers (i.e. DA, ADA, DAD) we could rationalize the stabilization of the lamellar organization at very long range [1]. In addition, the orientation of the lamellae (flat-on versus edge-on) on the substrate could be controlled by using different deposition techniques and post-deposition treatments [1,2]. Such nanostructured films show ambipolar charge transport, with mobility values (up to 10-2 cm2/V.s) that depend on the length of the D block. Finally, engineering the wavefunction of the D block turned out to be operative in stabilizing the charge transfer state lifetime up to 2-3 ns. [1] P.O. Schwartz et al, JACS,136, 5981 (2014) [2] L. Biniek et al, submitted

Authors : Jason D Ryan, Christian Müller
Affiliations : Chalmers Univeristy of Technology, Chalmers Univeristy of Technology

Resume : Organic thermoelectric materials may enable applications such as thermoelectric textiles that can be employed to convert body heat into electricity to power wearable electronics. A compelling choice of materials is natural fibres that are commonly used for textile applications. Here, we report that fibres from the silkworm Bombyx mori can be dyed with suitable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. In addition, we explore routes that permit to enhance the adhesion of the conjugated polymer to B. mori fibres. We have characterized the electrical and mechanical properties of the resulting electrically conducting fibres and identify opportunities to further enhance the performance of this promising type of thermoelectric fibre.

Authors : I. Taydakov, A. Akkuzina, R. Avetisov, A. Khomyakov, E. Mozhevitina, I. Avetissov
Affiliations : D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia

Resume : A series of new pyrazole substituted 1.3-diketones bearing fluorinated alkyl groups (C1-C6) were prepared and systematically explored as a ligands for the preparation of luminescent complexes with different trivalent rare earths ions. First triplet levels energy values (T1) of above mentioned ligands were determinated by low temperature (77K) phosphorescent spectra measurements. It was found that 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hexane-1,3-dione is a superior ligand for synthesis of highly luminescent Eu (III) complexes with 1.10-phenanthroline or similar Lewis bases as auxiliary ligands. These complexes are sufficiently thermal stable, transparent, volatile in high vacuum and soluble in common solvents and monomers such as styrene, MMA or epoxy resins, which make possible to produce OLEDs (both by dry and wet technologies) or plastic energy converters based on them. Some model electro-optical devices will be discussed.

Authors : M. Schmidt1, S. Foster2, M. I. Alonso1, D. D. C. Bradley2, J. Nelson2, M. Campoy-Quiles1, A. R. Goñi1,3
Affiliations : 1 Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; 2 Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2AA, London, UK; 3 ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain

Resume : Semiconducting polymers attract great attention as possible cost-effective and easy to process candidates for optoelectronic devices. We have chosen poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), as model polymers for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells, respectively. There are open questions regarding how planarity, interchain interactions and the dielectric constant influence the optical properties of these polymers. We have thus used high hydrostatic pressure to gradually change the intermolecular distance without chemically altering the molecules. We have measured their absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and refractive index under hydrostatic pressure up to 8 GPa. Differences in bathochromic shifts with pressure are used to estimate the relative strengths of the aforementioned mechanisms. For PFO, we obtain a pressure coefficient of -34 meV/GPa. We estimate that the contribution to this red shift corresponding to planarization is ca -6 meV/GPa and the one from intrachain (J-aggregate like) interaction is ca -9 meV/GPa, whereas the main contribution of about -19 meV/GPa stems from interchain interactions. Interestingly, the increase in film density is strongly compensated by a decrease in oscillator strength, leading to very modest increase in the dielectric function under high pressure. This knowledge helped us to understand the effect of pressure on the charge transfer (CT) state of P3HT:PCBM donor-acceptor mixtures.

Authors : M. Aghahamohammadi,1 A. Perez-Rodriguez,1A. Marsal,2 C. Ocal,1 C. Voz, 2J. Puigdollers,2 E.Barrena1
Affiliations : 1Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain; 2 Dept. Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, C/Jordi Girona, 31, Mòdul C4, Barcelona 08034, Spain

Resume : A robust way of enhancing the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate organic thin film transistors (OFETs) is the chemical modification of the gate dielectric by a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). One important effect of employing SAM-treated gate-dielectrics in OFETs is that SAMs can be used to modify the threshold voltage (Vth) of the transistors in a range from few to tens of volts. Whereas there is extensive literature addressing the physical and chemical aspects of SAMs involved in the performance enhancement of p-type OFETs, the role of SAMs in n-type devices has been less studied. Here we present a study of the effect of amino-terminated SAMs on n-type OFETs employing copper-hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) as semiconductor, one of the few air stable n-type organic semiconductors available. We show that this amino-terminated SAM causes a shift of the threshold voltage towards negative values, indicating electron accumulation in the channel. The density-of-states in the gap of F16CuPc is calculated from the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors measured at different temperatures. Our results suggest that the interface becomes charged by a layer of immobile positive ions that compensates the gate field. Specific chemical effects on the amino-terminated SAM are discussed as mechanism responsible of the observed shift of Vth.

Affiliations : 1 Laboratory of chemistry and environmental chemistry L.C.C.E - University of Batna- Algeria 2 Laboratory of Mechanical Stress-Transfer Dynamics at Interfaces, LACMDTI URCA,BP 1039, 51687 University of Reims Cedex2, France

Resume : In order to optimize the isomerization reaction of the PA, which is the passage from the insulating state to the semi conducting state, we have taken the experimental results of some researchers and analyzed them with the most advanced methods. In this study, we used the experimental data of Chien & Yang, Chung et al, Ito et al and Montaner et al, from which we used the least squares method, linear and multilinear regression to establish programs and propose mathematical (theoretical) models that allow us to calculate the constant characteristics of each theoretical relationship between the different variables, and reformulate the experimental results with the least error. From the theoretical models, we have been able to estimate the velocity constants (k) for different temperatures, and found an activation energy (Ea) of 24.66 kcal/mol, and a pre-exponential factor (A) = 10.24 * 1012/min; thus the evolution of the activation energy has been determined Ea = f(% trans) which is close to the results of Ito et al. Regarding the isomerization of non-doped PA at 343 K, we found a dose responsive model with an error of 0.7% for the isomerization under 1 atm of oxygen, and an exponentially decreasing of order 1 with an error 4% and 0.953% - under 1 atm of air and nitrogen, respectively. From the IR bands absorptions for the frequencies 1 = 446 cm-1 and 2 =740 cm-1, we have estimated the values of the velocity constant k for the three temperatures of the two bands Cis and Trans as well as the energies of activations of the two bands [Ea = 29.47 kcal (1 =446 cm-1) and Ea = 31.594 kcal (2 =740 cm-1)] Keywords: Simulation - Model -Isomerization -Polyacetylene.- FTIR

Authors : A. Guarnaccio (1)*, A. Santagata (1), M. Coreno (2), C. Grazioli (3), A. De Bonis (1,4), R. Teghil (4), R. Racioppi (4), M. D’Auria (4) G. Mattioli (5), A. Amore Bonapasta (5)
Affiliations : (1) CNR-ISM UOS Tito Scalo - C/da S. Loja, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ), ITALY (2) CNR-ISM UOS Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy (3) Dip. Chimica, Università di Trieste and CNR-IOM, TASC Basovizza Area Science Park 34149 Trieste, ITALY (4) Dip. Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, ITALY (5) CNR – ISM UOS Monterotondo- via Salaria Km 29,300 - C.P. 10, I 00015 - Monterotondo Stazione (RM), ITALY

Resume : The study of adsorption and reactions of organic S-containing molecules onto metal surfaces plays an important role in modern surface science and technological applications [1]. In this context, we have performed, so far, a comparative study of DTBT (1,3-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c]thiophene), brominated (1,3-bis(4,5-dibromothiophen-2-yl)benzo[c]thiophene) and 3T (terthiophene) oligothiophenes by following the nature of interactions occurring between the simplest counterpart of these compounds with a Ag surface. IR, RAMAN, and SERS have been used for this purpose. Furthermore, HRXPS data of the free molecules in gas phase have also been acquired as reference. The results suggest that DTBT and 3T interact in a different way with the surface. DFT calculations have been run to study the reactivity, interactions and molecular conformation at interfaces. Our hypothesis is based on the different electronic structure of DTBT and 3T and alignments with respect to the surface and it is being confirmed by calculations. UHV deposition of brominated building blocks onto a Ag single crystal and annealing has been already shown to be successful in promoting surface-catalyzed Ullmann polymerization of similar kind of substrates [2]. Though still preliminary, our results can provide fundamental information for predicting molecules as good candidates for surface-catalyzed polymerizations. [1] F. S. Tautz, Prog. Surf. Sci. 2007, 82, 479. [2] L. Cardenas et al., Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 3263.

Authors : A. GUARNACCIO (1)*, P. A. LOUKAKOS (3), D. ANGLOS (3), A. SANTAGATA (1), M. D’AURIA (2), R. RACIOPPI (2), R. TEGHIL (1,2), A. DE BONIS (1,2), G. LENDVAY (4)
Affiliations : (1) CNR-ISM U.O.S. Tito Scalo, Zona Ind. – 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) – Italy (2) Department of Science, University of Basilicata, Via dell'Ateneo Lucano 10 – 85100 Potenza – Italy (3) Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser-IESL, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas – FORTH, 71110 Heraklion, Greece (4) Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Magyar Tudósok krt. 2, Hungary

Resume : A new synthetic pathway has been developed for getting a donor-acceptor p-conjugated C60-oligothiophene-C60 triad compound in which the three constituents are linked covalently by two ethynyl bridges [1]. Preliminary photophysical steady-state and transient pump-probe measurements in solution have allowed us to study the electron dynamics processes involved. One of the major observations has been an electron transfer pathway. In parallel, electronic structure calculations have been performed on donor, donor-acceptor and some related structures. Quantum chemical methods were used to calculate the energetics of excited electronic states and the absorption spectra as well as the nature of the excitations. The theoretical methods were calibrated by comparison with the experiments. The results of exploratory theoretical calculations [1] were confirmed by further geometry optimizations of systems in their ground state. The results of the B3LYP/6-31G** and the M05-2X/cc-pVDZ levels of theory agree well. TD-DFT calculations were performed at the M05-2X/cc-pVDZ geometries at the B3LYP/6-311G** and the PBE/6-311G** levels. From the simulated absorption spectra we concluded that the longest-wavelength spectral bands correspond to predominantly HOMO-LUMO transitions. In the poster we show how the nature of the transitions of the pure donor changes with the addition of the C60 acceptor. [1] D’Auria, M.; Guarnaccio, A.; Racioppi, R.; Santagata, A.; Teghil, R. Synlett 2013, 24(8), 943.

Authors : Kwon-Hyeon Kim, Chang-Ki Moon, Jeong-Hwan Lee, Jang-Joo Kim
Affiliations : WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Center for Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea

Resume : Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29~30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here, we used quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrated an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% for for red-emitting HICs and 32.3% for for green-emitting HICs when using HICs with phosphorescence transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction.

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Structure-OFETs nexus : Christian Müller
Authors : Jun Takeya1,2
Affiliations : 1 Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha; Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561, Japan 2 Pi-Crystal Inc., 2-7-38, Nishimiyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0004, Japan

Resume : Small molecular organic semiconductor crystals form interesting electronic systems of periodically arranged “charge clouds” whose mutual electronic coupling determines whether or not electronic states can be coherent over molecular distances. Recently, it turned out that band transport is realized in high-mobility organic semiconductor crystals though this situation is not common to all organic semiconductors. This presentation first focuses on the single-crystal molecular assembly of pentacene which does not exhibit full charge coherence at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. Hall coefficient, telling us the extent of the electronic coherence, is precisely measured for accumulated charge in pentacene single-crystal field-effect transistors at various temperatures with varied pressure. With the application of external pressure, the electronic coupling between pentacene molecules is continuously modified so that the extent of the intermolecular coherence grows with increasing pressure. In addition, it is demonstrated for newly synthesized decyl-dinaphthobenzodithiophene (C10-DNBDT) that room-temperature mobility is increased by the factor of 1.7 with the application of uniaxial strain with restricted molecular vibration. The results indicate the significant impact of the structural modification to the charge transport properties in organic semiconductor devices.

Authors : Mario Caironi
Affiliations : Center for Nano Science and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano

Resume : Polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) can achieve charge mobility in excess of 1 and 10 cm2/Vs for electrons and holes, respectively. Such performances are sufficient for a large range of applications of printed, light-weight and mechanically robust circuits, in diverse fields such as wearable electronics, smart packaging, and bio-electronics. Yet quantitative models describing charge transport in molecular solids are not available. While it is well established that films microstructure strongly affects performances in polymer FETs, the relation between structure and charge transport is still highly debated. In particular, recently developed, high mobility donor-acceptor copolymers offer evidences of strong resilience to disorder. In this framework, techniques capable of directly monitoring how charge is distributed when injected into a polymer film and how it correlates with the microstructure can be of strong help. In this contribution I will show that polarized charge modulation microscopy (p-CMM)[1,2] can selectively map the orientational order of the only conjugated segments that are probed by mobile charge in the few nanometer thick accumulation layer of polymer FETs. p-CMM offers the unprecedented opportunity to correlate, directly in a working device, electronic properties with structural information on those conjugated segments involved in charge transport at the buried semiconductor-dielectric interface of a FET. [1] Adv.Mater. 23(2011)5086 [2 ]ACS Nano 8(2014)5968

Structure-Organic Thermoelectrics nexus : Mario Caironi
Authors : Michael L. Chabinyc
Affiliations : University of California Santa Barbara

Resume : Thermoelectric devices convert thermal energy to electrical energy and by reciprocity the converse. These devices allow for capture of waste heat and for control of temperature without mechanical compressors. Organic semiconductors represent a promising class of thermoelectrics due to their simplicity in processing and potential performance due to their good electrical performance and relatively low thermal conductivity. A key challenge in achieving high performance organic thermoelectrics is control of their carrier concentration, which helps to set the thermopower and electrical conductivity. We will present recent work in our lab on doping of semiconducting polymers and small molecules to achieve both p-type and n-type conductivity. By studying several high carrier mobility semiconducting polymers, we have found that processing methods have a significant impact on thermopower. We will report temperature dependent measurements of thermopower and conductivity that help to reveal the nature of these changes. By comparing broad classes of materials, we have found a striking relationship between the thermopower and electrical conductivity that suggests directions for optimization of new materials.

Authors : Bernhard Dörling 1, Jason Ryan 2, Matthew C. Weisenberger 3, Andrea Sorrentino 4, Ahmed El Basati 1, Miquel Garriga 1, Eva Pereiro 4, John E. Anthony 3, Christian Müller 2, Alejandro R. Goñi 1 5, Mariano Campoy-Quiles 1,
Affiliations : 1 Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; 2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden; 3 Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40511, USA; 4 Synchrotron ALBA, 08193, Cerdanyola, Spain; 5 ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain;

Resume : Conjugated polymers are of great interest in low-temperature thermoelectric applications, as they can easily be solution processed, which enables large-area printing on flexible substrates. While the low thermal conductivity of polymers is of advantage, they also have rather low electrical conductivity. This drawback can be overcome by the addition of highly conductive fillers, like carbon nanotubes. These composites not only show increased electrical performance, but also allow tuning the sign of the Seebeck coefficient from positive to negative values, as is demonstrated herein. This way, both the p-type and the n-type legs of thermocouples can be fabricated from the same type of composite, thereby further simplifying the fabrication process, thus rendering possible prospective applications, such as power sources for wearable sensors and gadgets, for which price is an important factor. Here, we present results of experiments conducted on composites of regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (rr-P3HT) and nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (n-doped MWCNTs). Samples with a wide range of mixing ratios were drop-cast onto flexible PET substrates and the Seebeck coefficient S and electrical conductivity σ were measured in the plane of the substrate. σ shows percolative behaviour with threshold at about 5 wt% CNTs, as was observed previously for composites of undoped CNTs[1]. The Seebeck coefficient S exhibits an interesting difference in behaviour in the case of n-doped CNTs however. For low CNT content, S is positive, as would be expected for P3HT, even though the n-type CNTs percolate. Increasing the CNT content decreases S into negative values. The resulting power factor S2σ has two maxima, one near 20 wt% CNT content, where the composite shows p-type behaviour, and another near 80 wt% CNTs, where it acts as an n-type thermoelectric material. Using these composites, we illustrate the potential of the developed technology by demonstrating working, easy to process, thermoelectric generator prototypes, whose design capitalizes on the advantages that flexible substrates offer. References [1] Bounioux, C. et al. Thermoelectric composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and carbon nanotubes with a large power factor. Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 918–925 (2013).

Authors : Kosala Wijeratne, Skomantas Puzinas,Xavier Crispin
Affiliations : Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping Linköping University, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden

Resume : Thermogalvanic cell is an electrochemical device which allows direct conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy. It consists of an electrolyte with redox couple and two identical electrodes at a different temperatures. Thermogalvanic cells are attractive alternative to harvest waste heat generated from industrial process and household usage. Even though, thermogalvanic cells have been studied in the past, thermoelectric research field dominated by the solid-state devices including p and n semiconductor materials. However, thermogalvanic cell has become increasingly attractive in recent year due to simplicity, low cost and flexibility of device structure. Most studied thermogalvanic cell is electrolyte containing aqueous 0.4 M ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple with platinum electrodes. In this system temperature difference creates a difference in the redox potential of the ferri/ferrocyanide electrolyte at the platinum electrodes allowing to generate power. In order to make thermogalvanic cell commercially available, the electrode material has to be replace with more cost effective and efficient material. Conducting polymer is one of the promising candidate for thermogalvanic cell due to high stability and electrochemical activity. Furthermore conducting polymers can be synthesized with higher conductivity, stability and porosity. Eventually, these properties facilitates extracting of larger current densities between electrode and electrolyte.

Authors : Yu Yamashita[A], Junto Tsurumi[A], Felix Hinkel[B], Yugo Okada[A], Junshi Soeda[C], Wojciech Zajaczkowski[B], Martin Baumgarten[B], Wojciech Pisula[B], Hiroyuki Matsui[A], Klaus Müllen[B], and Jun Takeya[A]
Affiliations : A: Univ. of Tokyo B: Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research C: Osaka Univ.

Resume : A microscopic understanding of charge carrier transport in polymeric semiconductors, the most suited class of materials for printed and flexible semiconductor devices, has been the central subject of organic electronics. Due to the presence of inherent disorder and thermally activated structural fluctuation, it is a fundamental challenge to realize band transport within the range of charge accumulation accessible in field-effect transistors. To our knowledge, there has been no report proving band transport in polymer organic transistors. In this work, we demonstrate the Hall effect and a slightly negative temperature dependence of the charge carrier mobility in solid-gate polymeric transistors based on CDT-BTZ, donor-acceptor copolymers with different length of sidechains (Hexadecyl = C16 and Eicosyl = C20). We thereby employ a unique method for the elaborate orientation of polymer chains on the stable surface of an ionic liquid. The Hall factor close to the ideal value, a maximum hole mobility of 8 cm2/Vs at room temperature, and negative temperature dependence indicate that the system is located in the transition region between the band and hopping transport and closeness to band transport differs with different length of sidechains.

Materials & Processing II : Sabine Ludwigs
Authors : M. Brinkmann (1), L. Biniek (1), A. Hamidi-Sakr (1), N. Kayunkid (1), A. Sarbu (1), P. Mésini (1), S. Pouget (2), D. Djurado (2)
Affiliations : (1) Institut Charles Sadron, CNRS-University of Strasbourg, 23 rue du loess, 67034, Strasbourg, France (2) UMR SPrAM 5819 (CEA-CNRS-UJF) and SP2M, CEA Grenoble/INAC, 38054, Grenoble Cedex, France.

Resume : -conjugated materials form an essential class of functional materials in plastic electronics. Thin film processing from solution or from the solid state is an important aspect to optimize device performances because of the strong correlations that exist between the way these materials order and orient on surfaces and their optical and electronic properties. Herein, we present recent results concerning large scale alignment by high temperature rubbing of molecular and macromolecular semi-conductors. This method has been successfully applied to alternated donor-acceptor copolymers (p(NDI2OD-T2), PCPDTBT), donor-acceptor co-oligomers and -conjugated organogelators. Transmission electron microscopy (dark field, low dose high resolution and electron diffration) provides a unique insight on the thin film structure and nanomorphology. It allows to draw correlations between morphology, structure, charge transport and optical properties in thin films.

Authors : Thomas G. Dane (1); Patrice Rannou (2); Charl F. J. Faul (3); Wuge H. Briscoe (3); Manfred Burghammer (1)
Affiliations : (1) ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Matyrs, Grenoble, 38043, France; (2) CEA Grenoble - INAC SPRAM/LEMOH, 17 Rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, 38054, France; (3) School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK

Resume : Understanding structure-function correlations remains a central goal for developing and optimising organic electronic devices. In such systems, defects in the supramolecular structures such as grain boundaries, domain size, polymorphism and amorphous regions play a limiting role in the charge transport properties. Using conventional X-ray beams, large sample volumes are illuminated and subtle defect structures are not detected. We have therefore used highly focused X-ray beams (a few microns down to a hundred nanometers) to gain structural information with unprecedented spatial resolution in thiophene- and aniline-based organic electronic materials. We have used micro-focus X-ray diffraction to observe domain growth and defect formation during thermotropic phase transitions in liquid-crystal devices. The electronic properties were simultaneously recorded allowing direct correlation with the structural information. In addition, local variations in the surface structure of solution-processed thin films have been resolved using nano-focus grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. The small beam footprint (40 x 0.15 um^2) enabled measurement of the real space distribution of structural inhomogeneities as a function of the sample preparation conditions. This novel approach to the characterisation of organic electronic materials has provided new insights into the processing-structure-property relationship.

Authors : Ignasi Burgués-Ceballos, Felix Hermerschmidt, Stelios Choulis
Affiliations : Molecular Electronics and Photonics Research Unit Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Cyprus University of Technology 3401 Limassol, Cyprus E-mail:

Resume : The transfer from lab-scale to large area organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is not straightforward and encompasses many challenges to overcome.[1,2] Ironically, one of the reasons that hinder research in low-cost, large-scale OPV processing is the high cost of materials. In this context, compact lab-scale coating machines are very interesting, since they are directly compatible with industrial scale roll-to-roll processing, whereas the amount of material needed can be drastically reduced.[3] We present the processing conditions for printed OPV devices comprising bulk-heterojunction blends of the low bandgap conjugated polymer poly[(4,4’-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2’,3’-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,5’-diyl] (Si-PCPDTBT) as well as poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4’,7’-di-2-thienyl-2’,1’,3’-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) used as electron donors with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) as electron acceptor by using inkjet-printer and lab-scale coating machines.[4] By controlling the printing processing conditions, we gain an improvement in device power conversion efficiency to previously reported work using these materials. The results highlight printing processing limitations and discuss implementation of novel materials and printed electrodes for high performance solution processed OPVs. [1] Nanoscale 2, 873–886 (2010) [2] J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 17711–17722 (2014) [3] SEMSC 97, 191–196 (2012) [4] SEMSC 130, 474–480 (2014)

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Authors : M. Aghamohammadi1, A. Fernández1, M. Schmidt1, A. Pérez-Rodríguez1, A.R. Goñi1,2 , J. Fraxedas3, G.Sauthier3, M. Paradinas1 , C.Ocal1 and E. Barrena1
Affiliations : 1 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Spain 2 ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain 3 ICN2 – CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193, Spain

Resume : We address the impact of the relative orientation between donor (D) and acceptor (A) molecules at the D/A heterojunction on the exciton dissociation. For this purpose, two-dimensional heterojunctions of diindenoperylene (DIP) and N,N´-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicdiimide (PTCDI-C8) deposited onto SiO2/Si are grown, which exemplify two model interfaces with the π-staking direction either perpendicular or parallel to the interface.1 Aspects related to the nanomorphology of the heterojunctions and charge photogeneration are studied by scanning probe force methods and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We show that the exciton dissociation is influenced by the different relative molecular orientations of A and D. For the configuration with stronger orbital overlap between A and D at the interface, the exciton dissociation is dominated by recombination from an interfacial charge transfer state. This works provide a clear identification of molecular orientation as one of the significant factors governing exciton dissociation through interfacial states and outline the importance of the local structure at the A/D heterojunction for the charge photogeneration processes.

Materials & Processing IV : Lynn Loo
Authors : Wouter Dierckx, Wibren D. Oosterbaan, Jean-Christophe Bolsée, Ilaria Cardinaletti, Wouter Maes, Dirk Vanderzande and Jean Manca
Affiliations : Universiteit Hasselt - Institute for Materials Research & X-LaB IMEC - Associated lab IMOMEC Campus Diepenbeek (Belgium)

Resume : Semiconducting poly(3-alkylthiophene) nanofibers show remarkable optical and electrical properties and because of their high aspect ratio (linguini-like fibers) they are very suited to serve as organic one-dimensional high ways for charge carriers. Henceforth, they offer interesting perspectives for next generation optoelectronic applications. This contribution provides an overview of the preparation/processing and characterization of poly(3-alkylthiophene) nanofibers, and a discussion on nanofiber-based optoelectronic applications, ranging from bulk heterojunction solar cells to ‘one single fibre’-transistors and phototransistors.

Authors : Cornlia Rodenburg 1, Robert Masters 1, Fabial-Cyril Sasam 2, Letiatian Li 2, Andrew Pearson 3, Tom Glen 3, Athene M Donald 3, Maurizio Dapor 4 and David G Lidzey 5
Affiliations : 1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK; 2 FEI Co. Europe NanoPort, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven, The Netherlands; 3 Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE; 4 European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT*), Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK),Via Sommarive, 18 - I-38123 Povo (TN), Italy; 5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH

Resume : Secondary electrons (SE) can be emitted as result of the interaction with light (as in organic photo-voltaic, (OPV)) or by interaction with an electron beam, as exploited in a scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). SEMs are known for their ease of use, fast image collection, and simple or no specimen preparation. Therefore the SEM appears to be an ideal tool for the fast assessment of morphology provided, that low electron beam energies and currents can be used for imaging so that no conductive coating is needed. It is recognised that active layer morphology on different length scales is critical to OPV performance, in particular life time but mapping local variations across multiple length scales usually requires a multitude of techniques and specialist equipment. Here we show for different OPV blend systems how an SEM can provide high contrast images of OPV active layers and give local morphology information from the micron-scale to sub-nanometre scale in a few minutes by imaging using selected regions of the SE Emission spectrum or using low energy back scattered electrons. By comparing modelled SE spectra with experimental data we show that electron affinity and trap density strongly affect the shape of SE Emission spectra, thus providing an opportunity for mapping such properties by energy filtered low voltage SEM.

Authors : Laure Biniek, Amer Hamidi-Sakr, Martin Brinkmann
Affiliations : Institut Charles Sadron (UPR 22), University of Strasbourg-CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg cedex 2, France

Resume : In polymeric semi-conducting materials, both molecular and crystalline orientations determine optical, electronic and opto-electronic properties in thin films since these properties are by essence highly anisotropic.(1) Therefore, it is of interest to control the contact plane of crystalline domains in the active layers as it determines, for instance, the direction of facile charge transport in the cases of OPV and OFET. Recently, mechanical rubbing has been applied to prepare highly oriented films of a large palette of pi-conjugated polymers over large area. Both, the temperature of the films during rubbing and the molecular weight distribution of the polymer determine the level of orientation.(2) In this work, we demonstrate the precise control of lamellar periodicity by varying the rubbing and annealing temperatures of poly(3-alkythiophene) (P3HT and P3BT) thin films. The nanostructures, observed by HR-TEM, can be clearly correlated to the optical properties of the rubbed thin films. Higher processing temperatures affect the lamellar structure of the polymers causing a longer exciton delocalization and reducing therefore the excitonic coupling constant in a P3AT crystal. The effect of lamellar thickness on charge transport properties is also discussed in this presentation. (1) Brinkmann M. et al. Macromol. Rapid. Comm. 2014, 35, 9. (2) Biniek L. et al. Macromolecules 2014, 47, 3871.

Authors : Yi-Feng Lin [1], Chun-Ting Li [2], I-Ting Chiu [2], Yi-June Huang [2], Kuo-Chuan Ho [1],[2]*
Affiliations : [1] Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan [2] Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan * Corresponding author:

Resume : A hierarchical nanotube array composed of the novel conducting polymer, poly(hydroxymethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-OH), was successfully synthesized via a template-free electrochemical polymerization technique. At first step, PEDOT-OH was synthesized under a dichloromethane-based atmosphere; and thereby the one-dimensional (1D) nanotube array was formed on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate. At second step, PEDOT-OH was further assembled onto the as-prepared film under another acetonitrile-based atmosphere, and thereby the honeycomb PEDOT-OH was decorated on the PEDOT-OH nanotube array to form a hierarchical structure. Accordingly, several PEDOT-OH films with various morphologies, including honeycomb, nanotube array, and hierarchical structures, were obtained; they aimed to work as the electro-catalytic counter electrodes for iodine/triiodine (I-/I3-) reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For a hierarchical film, PEDOT-OH nanotube array provides fast 1D charge transfer passage, while the decorated honeycomb PEDOT-OH gives the extended electro-active sites. Therefore, the DSSCs with the hierarchical PEDOT-OH as the counter electrode achieve the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.0%; the PCE is comparable to that of the cell with traditional expensive Pt counter electrode (8.11%). Thus, PEDOT-OH can be considered as a good replacement of Pt, due to several advantages of high efficiency, low cost, and simple fabrication process.

Authors : Aysenur Erdogana, Mustafa Ersöz,b,c, Ilkay Hilal Gubbukc, Mahmut Kusa,b
Affiliations : a Selçuk University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering; b Selçuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, 42075, Konya, Turkey; c Selçuk University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 42075, Konya, Turkey

Resume : Semiconductor quantum dots have great attention due to their tunable band gap depending on crystal size. These unique properties make them attractive materials for many applications such as electronics solar cells and medical applications.[1] [2] Core, core/shell or alloyed forms of those materials have been reported by many authors. [3] In this work, we investigated the composition effect on electrochemical properties of CdSeS alloys. For this purpose, gradient alloys of CdSeS nanocrystals were synthesized and their electrochemical properties were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry technique was used for electrochemical analysis. The redox potentials show some differences depending on chalcogenide composition in nanocrystals. The reduction potentials of CdSeS nanocrystals shift to more negative potentials by increasing Se/S ratio. The results showed that, the band position of nanocrystals are tunable depending on the chalcogenide composition. References: [1] Carver B. M., “Intro into the Engineering and Science of Nanotechnology-Quantum dots”, 2006, Course no: 0909-504-06. [2] Manna L., Scher E. C., Alivisatos A. P., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 12700–12706. [3] Jinjin L., Wanting Y., Yunchao L., Louzhen F., Yongfang L., Electrochemical studies of the effects of the size, ligand and composition on the band structures of CdSe, CdTe and their alloy nanocrystals, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 2014, 16, 4778 Acknowledgement: We thank to TUBITAK (PN:109T881) for financial support.

Authors : Ceylan Doyranli1, Sumeyra Buyukcelebi,3,4, Sermet Koyuncu2, Mahmut Kus3,5, Mustafa Ersoz3,6, Fatma Baycan Koyuncu1
Affiliations : 1; Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Chemistry, Canakkale, Turkey 2; Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Canakkale, Turkey 3; Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya, Turkey 4; Selcuk University, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Konya, Turkey 5; Selcuk University, Department of Chemical Engineering Konya, Turkey 6; Selcuk University, Department of Chemistry, Konya, Turkey

Resume : Cross-linked films of conjugated polymers have been a topic of significant attention in the past few decades.1 The conjugated polymers are easy processability since they are soluble and which enable them to be used in many commercial areas.2 Solution processability property allows for easy spin-coating, spraying, and inking of films directly onto a variety of rigid and flexible substrates. However, this property leads to problem in construction multilayer and patterned devices, which can greatly improve device performance.3 Cross-linked conjugated polymer films propose an alternative to solve this problem.4 In this work, a series of thiol-ene cross-linkable conjugated materials with tunable band gap were synthesized. Optical and electrochemical properties were carried out by using UV-vis, Flurescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The morphology of crosslinked polymer film surfaces was studied by AFM. Particle size was increased after crosslinking and the RMS (root mean surface) roughness was observed as 10 nm. Finally, multilayer OLED devices was fabricated and characterized. The results were compared with standard OLED devices and discussed. Aknowledgement: We thank to TUBITAK (PN:113Z255) for financial support. 1.Bayerl, M, etal. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 1999, 20 (4), 224−228. 2.Helgesen, M. et al. J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20 (1), 36−60. 3.Zhao, Wet al, M. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2004, 14 (8), 783−790. 4.Png, R. Q. et al.Nat. Mater. 2010, 9 (2), 152−158.

Authors : Aysenur Erdogan, a, Mustafa Can, c, Ahmet Nuri Ozcivan, d, Mahmut Kus, a,b
Affiliations : a: Selçuk University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering b :Selçuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, 42075, Konya, Turkey c : Izmir Katip Celebi University, Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, , Cigli, 35620 Izmir, Turkey d : Izmir Katip Celebi University, Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department, Bornova, 35100 Izmir, Turkey

Resume : Recently, the design and synthesis of organic semiconductors have gained great attention due to their important function in organic electronics devices such as solar cells (OSC), organic light emitting diode (OLED), solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell and also in perovskite solar cells. In this study, fluorine-carbazol derivatives involving strong electron donor groups have been synthesized and characterized. Electrochemical, thermal and optical properties have been investigated. HOMO and LUMO levels were calculated from CV and absorption spectra. The glass transition temperatures show different values by changing side groups. The synthesized materials used in OLEDs and also Quantum dot Hybrid solar Cells. OLEDs showed improvement in performance. For hybrid solar cells, the materials were functionalized to anchor on the surface of CdSeS nanocrystals. Then, Nanocrystal-P3HT mixtures were used to prepare hybrid solar cells. Voc and Isc values are increased by comparing the results with pyridine capped nanocrystals.

Authors : M. Ottonelli (a), M. Alloisio (a), I. Moggio (b), M. Isabel Martinez Espinoza (a), E. Arias (b)
Affiliations : (a) Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universitá di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa, Italy; (b) Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. EnriqueReyna 140, 25294, Saltillo, México.

Resume : In this work, a theoretical design addressed to the synthesis of new conjugated co-polymers for organic photovoltaic devices, based on tetrazine, benzothiadiazole, dithiophene and thiophene moieties was applied. The theoretical study is aimed to explore which combination of molecules is the most promising taking into account as first step the intrinsic electronic properties and successively on their correlations with the nanostructure of the organic semiconductors. In particular, the band gap energy and the open circuit voltage simulated values are the parameters to be taken in account for the selection of the potential material for solar cell devices. Preliminary results shows that the most suitable combination that gives rise to low band gaps, higher absorption coefficients and with interesting offset of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels is the bridge-linked copolymer which alternates the dithiophene (D) and the benzothiazole (A) moieties, likely due to their push-pull effect D->A.

Authors : Felix Buss1, Benjamin Schmidt-Hansberg1, Wilhelm Schabel1, and Esther Barrena2
Affiliations : 1 Institute of Thermal Process Engineering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany), 2 Insitut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

Resume : We investigate the impact a low volatile additive on the structure formation of PCPDTBT:PC71BM blends using a combined GIXD/reflectometry setup that allows for a simultaneous determination of the crystallization dynamics and the solvent composition of the film. If processed from pure DCB solutions, PCPDTBT does not exhibit crystalline features due to fullerene clusters that impede dense chain packing. In the presence of 3wt% ODT we observe the crystallization of PCPDTBT in several stages, which is interrelated with the aggregation behavior of the fullerene component. We determine that 3wt% ODT dissolve 0.09wt% PC71BM leaving 2.91wt% “free PC71BM” in solution and therefore suggest that upon the addition of ODT the fullerene component does not entirely dissolve. In the late stages of drying, where mainly ODT evaporates, further aggregation of PCBM reduces the (100) ordering of the polymer component.

Authors : Pasquale Morvillo, Rosita Diana, Rosa Ricciardi, Giuseppe Nenna, Carla Minarini
Affiliations : ENEA, UTTP NANO, P.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Italy

Resume : In this work we investigated the behaviour of standard and inverted polymer solar cells by impedance spectroscopy (IS) analysis. The photoactive layer is a blend film of poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiopene)-2,6-diyl] (PBDTTT-C) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM). The standard cells sequence is ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PBDTTT-C:[70]PCBM/Ca/Al and the inverted cells one is ITO/ZnO/PBDTTT-C:[70]PCBM/MoO3/Ag. All the devices were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, IS, IV light, IV dark and quantum efficiency measurements. In particular we used IS technique to check the conductance and the capacitance response of a device when an ac voltage is applied as a function of the frequency. We performed also Capacitance and Conductance measurements fixing the frequency and changing the applied voltage to have an understanding about the change in the diode performance during the operating voltage scan and to better compare the IS measurements with the IV one. We investigate the charge injection across the organic–organic interfaces, the effects of the charge injection rate and the series resistances introduced by the electrodes. We can establish that the inverse stack in solar cells is a very good solutions not only to solve partially the degradation in organic solar devices (no use of calcium) but also to reduce the loss current, to improve the diode switch on and the built in voltage.

Authors : Hyun Hwi Lee1,*, Tae Joo Shin1 and Hyo Jung Kim2,*
Affiliations : 1 Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea 2 Department of Organic Material Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea

Resume : The co-solvent effect of chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene mixture on the nanostructure of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) films were investigated. The mixed solvent induced initial tensile strain and improved the P3HT crystallinity as comparing the film made by pure chlorobenzene solvent. The mixed solvent also prevented the Al in-diffusion into the P3HT:PCBM layer during the thermal annealing. In addition, the presence of an Al layer on co-solvent film enhanced the grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering contrast between the P3HT and PCBM domains at the Al layer interface.

Authors : Tuğbahan Yılmaz Alıç1,4, Yasemin Topal1,2, Koray Kara1,4, Mahmut Kus1,3, Mustafa ERSOZ1,2
Affiliations : 1Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center Konya Turkey 2Selcuk University, Department of Chemistry Konya, Turkey 3Selcuk University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Konya Turkey 4Selcuk University, Department of Physics, Konya, Turkey

Resume : We firstly report on a novel polymer hybride solar cell structure based on POM-P3HT mixture. Different ratio of POM/P3HT (polyoxometalate/poly(3-hexylthiophene)) was used to investigate the influence on device performance. The efficiency increases by increasing POM ration in blend. The quantum efficiency was found to be between 0.3% and 1.5 % depending on blend composition. Thermal treatment also influenced the device performance due to microphase seperation. All these parameters have been optimized and presented.

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Organic Photovoltaics I : Jan Anton Koster
Authors : Harald Ade
Affiliations : North Carolina State University

Resume : In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs), electron donating and electron accepting materials form a complex network of discrete and distributed heterointerfaces and charge transport pathways in the photoactive layer where critical photo-physical processes occur. However, we have insufficient knowledge about the structural properties of these interfaces due to their 3-dimensional arrangement and the paucity of techniques to measure local order and purity. The presentation will review the use of synchrotron radiation based methods that can uniquely measure critical structural parameters, which includes molecular orientation correlations relative to donor/acceptor heterojunctions [1]. Using polarized resonant soft X-ray scattering [2], the degree of molecular orientation, an order parameter that describes face-on (+1) or edge-on orientation (-1) relative to these discrete heterointerfaces, can be determined. By manipulating the degree of molecular orientation through choice of molecular chemistry and processing solvent characteristics, the importance of this structural parameter on the performance of BHJ OPV devices and charge transfer dynamics can be demonstrated. We will furthermore show how compositional variations can be related to polymer crystal size [3] and how mobility and purity can relate to charge extraction and thus in turn to device performance [4,5]. A complete description of actual morphologies and theoretical modeling yet to be developed for OPVs will have to take these factors into account. Devices with efficiencies up to 10.8% will be discussed [6]. 1. J. R. Tumbleston et al., Nature Photonics 8, 386 (2014). 2. B. A. Collins et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 536 (2012). 3. W. Ma at al, Advanced Materials 26, 4234 (2014) 4. S. Albrecht et al. J. Physical Chemistry Letters 5, 1131-1138 (2014). 5. W. Liu et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 15566-15576 (2014). 6. Y. Liu et al., Nature Communications 5, 5293 (2014)

Authors : A. V. Mumyatov, O. A. Mukhacheva, D. K. Susarova, F. A. Prudnov, A. E. Goryachev and P. A. Troshin
Affiliations : Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Semenov av. 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow region, 142432, Russia

Resume : We report the design and investigation of >50 fullerene derivatives whose electron affinity is lowered considerably due to the electron donating nature of a single organic addend attached to the fullerene cage. The electrochemical properties of the fullerene derivatives were investigated in solution and in thin composite films (with P3HT and PCDTBT). The best representatives of the designed families of compounds showed cathodic shifts of the first reduction potentials as large as 100-120 mV compared to [60]PCBM. It was revealed that decrease in the electron affinity of the designed fullerene derivatives is related to the through-space electronic interactions of electron donating alkoxy groups with the fullerene cage. The application of the designed fullerene derivatives as n-type components in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells led to increase in the open circuit voltage by 100-170 mV compared to the reference devices based on [60]PCBM. Few compounds provided even higher open circuit voltages (up to 770-780 mV with P3HT) than bis-PCBM bearing two organic addends on the fullerene cage. Moreover, using the best materials improved also the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells where P3HT and PCDTBT were used as electron donor components. To our best knowledge this is one of the first examples of the fullerene derivatives with reduced electron affinity which outperform PCBM in solar cells comprising non-crystalline conjugated copolymers such as PCDTBT.

Authors : Ana Perez1, Andreas Arndt2, Cordula D. Wessendorf3, Jonas Hanisch3, Ibrahim Ata4, GiselaL. Schulz4, Aina Quintilla2, Peter Bäuerele4, Uli Lemmer2, Erik Ahlswede3, C.Ocal1, Esther Barrena1
Affiliations : 1 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra,Spain; 2 Lichttenchnisches Institut (Karlsruhere Institut für Technologie), 76131 Karlsruhe,Germany;3 Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Industriestraße 6, 70565 Stuttgart, Germany; 4 Institut für Organische Chemie II und Neue Materialien, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm,Germany

Resume : It is has been shown that bulk heterojunction solar cells can reach higher efficiencies and fill factors if controlling the morphology by applying solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatments[1]. By this method, the solvent vapor penetrates into the blend re-organizing the donor-acceptor arrangement. In the first part of this work, the effect of SVA is addressed for the system formed by a conjugated A-D-A type oligothiophene as donor in combination with PC60BM and PC71BM, being observed an increase of power conversion efficiency from near 1% to 6% upon SVA in chloroform. To understand this effect, the microstructure before and after SVA has been investigated by grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXD) for different incident angles thus obtaining depth-resolved structural information. The most remarkable effect of the solvent annealing is the increase of the π-π oligomers packing. Secondly, we focus on the modulation of the ITO’s workfunction (WF) by functionalization with self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different phosphonic acids. Kelvin probe force microscopy has been used for measuring the impact of the SAMs on the WF of the substrates and conductive atomic force microscopy for a nanoscale characterization of the electrical homogeneity of the substrates. The electrical performance of OPV devices with these modified ITO substrates has been characterized with a blend of PBDTTT-CF and PC71BM as the active layer [1] Cordula D. Wessendorf et al. Adv. Energy Mater. 2014, 14002

Authors : Davide Bartesaghi [1,2], Irene del Carmen Pérez [1], Juliane Kniepert [3], Steffen Roland [3], Mathieu Turbiez [4], Dieter Neher [3], L. Jan Anton Koster [1]
Affiliations : 1 Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials University of Groningen Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen; 2 Dutch Polymer Institute, P. O. Box 902, 5600AX Eindhoven, The Netherlands ; 3 Institute of Physics and Astronomy University of Potsdam Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24–25, 14476, Potsdam, Germany; 4 BASF Schweiz AG, Schwarzwaldallee 215, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland

Resume : The performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells is critically dependent on processing conditions. Processing conditions influence both charge transport and recombination, but often in opposite ways: improvements in one parameter can be accompanied by deterioration of others. Even subtle changes in the processing conditions are known to affect the fill-factor (FF). Here, we show that such variations in the FF are due to shifts in the competition between extraction and recombination of charge carriers. We empirically demonstrate the precise relationship between this competition and the FF for a wide variety of donor/acceptor combinations following different processing protocols. We measure charge carrier mobilities and bimolecular recombination rates using a combination of steady-state and transient extraction techniques. These quantities are used to estimate the extraction and recombination times. The ratio between the extraction and recombination times, which we call theta, indicates whether the majority of charge carriers recombine or can be extracted from the solar cell. If all the FFs of the solar cells studied are plotted versus theta, the data collapse onto one universal curve. This shows that the competition between extraction and recombination can be quantified by theta. Our results rationalise the observed changes in FF upon varying the processing conditions even when this leads to competing changes in transport and recombination.

Authors : Pasquale Morvillo, Rosita Diana, Eugenia Bobeico, Rosa Ricciardi, Carla Minarini
Affiliations : ENEA P.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici, Italy

Resume : In this work, we report the application of a sol-gel derived ZnO thin film, doped with group III elements (Al, Ga or In) as a buffer layer for high efficiency inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). ZnO films are widely used in such devices because they have a relatively high electron mobility, high transparency and environmental stability. The group III element-doped ZnO precursor was prepared by dissolving zinc acetate and ethanolamine in the 2-methoxyethanol in presence of a group III salt (i.e. Al(NO3)3, Ga(NO3)3 or InCl3). Doped ZnO thin films were then deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass substrates by spin coating the above solution. Inverted polymer solar cells with the configuration ITO/ZnO/photoactive layer/MoOx/Ag were realized in order to investigate the performance of ZnO thin film. The photoactive layer is a blend of Poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b′)dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-octanoyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-CF) and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) (1:1.5 w/w). We made a comparative study of the photovoltaic behavior of devices with ZnO films doped with different elements. All the devices were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, IV light, IV dark and quantum efficiency measurements. The best device reached a power conversion efficiency of 9%.

Chemistry-structure nexus II : Esther Barrena
Authors : Aram Amassian
Affiliations : Solar and Photovoltaic Engineering Research Center, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia

Resume : Solution-processing is extensively used in laboratory-based production of the photoactive layer in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices and has been the preferred way to fabricate the record efficiency OPV devices reported in recent years. The current understanding of BHJ formation via common solution-processing methods, such as spin-coating stems essentially from post-deposition investigations of the film, while our understandings of aggregation, crystallization and phase separation with respect to processing conditions and formulations are qualitative at best. Yet, the successful manufacturing of efficient BHJ OPV devices via scalable manufacturing processes, such as blade coating and slot-die coating, requires more quantitative understanding of BHJ formation in state-of-the-art spin-coated solar cells. Recent advances have made it possible to monitor the solution thinning as well as optical properties and x-ray scattering during the formation of BHJ thin films during spin-coating1-3. We will provide several recent examples to show how in situ investigations of solution-processing of polymer:fullerene and oligomer:fullerene blends helps to understand the critical roles of formulation and processing conditions in the solution-to-solid phase transformation and establish the processing-structure-property-performance nexus central to this symposium. Moreover, the lessons learned about BHJ formation during spin-coating help to achieve highly efficient solar cells, the positive characteristics of which can be emulated and transferred to more scalable and cost-effective processes, such as blade-coating. 1. K. W. Chou, B. Yan, R. Li, E. Q. Li, K. Zhao, D. H. Anjum, S. Alvarez, R. Gassaway, A. Biocca, S. T. Thoroddsen, A. Hexemer, A. Amassian, “Spin-cast bulk heterojunction solar cells: A dynamical investigation” Adv. Mater. 25, 1923-1929 (2013). 2. L. A. Perez, K. W. Chou, J. A. Love, T. S. van der Poll, D.-M. Smilgies, T.-Q. Nguyen, E. J. Kramer, A. Amassian, G. C. Bazan, “Solvent additive effects on solution processable small molecule crystallization and structural evolution in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed in situ during spin-casting”, Adv. Mater. 25, 6380-6384 (2013). 3. M. Abdelsamie, K. Zhao, M. R Niazi, K. W. Chou, A. Amassian, “In situ UV-Visible absorption during spin-coating of organic semiconductors: A new probe for organic electronics and photovoltaics”, J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 3373-3381 (2014).

Chemistry-structure nexus III : Natalie Stingelin
Authors : Pierre M. Beaujuge
Affiliations : Division of Physical Sciences & Engineering, Solar & Photovoltaic Engineering Research Center (SPERC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia

Resume : A number of recent studies point to the importance of solution and thin-film ordering effects in solution-processable π-conjugated polymers for bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors such as PCBM. In many instances, π–aggregation governs the self-assembly of the polymer donor – a key aspect that may ultimately impact nanoscale thin-film morphology and the phase-separation pattern of the BHJ. Significant differences in phase-separation patterns are known to influence BHJ solar cell performance, and in order to curb these effects, small-molecule processing additives, such as 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), are now commonly used in the optimization of polymer-PCBM BHJ blend morphologies. In poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) and wide-bandgap analogs blended with PCBM, the formation of π–aggregates in solution and in thin-films depends upon i) the combination of side-chain substituents and ii) the functional groups appended to the main chain, and the use of processing additives can be critical in the optimization of the BHJ morphologies. Furthering our understanding of how the main chain substitution pattern mediates the interplay between polymer donor and fullerene acceptor is a critical step as we look to continue improving BHJ solar cell efficiencies.

Authors : Kevin Sivula
Affiliations : Laboratory for Molecular Engineering of Optoelectronic Nanomaterials, Institute of Chemical Science and Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Resume : Crystallinity, domain size, and grain boundaries strongly affect charge carrier transport in solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films. While solvent and thermal annealing as well as additives such as DIO and CN have been established as tools for controlling these aspects, their capacity to tune morphology is limited. Hence more robust approaches are needed. Here a novel strategy to control neat thin-film and bulk heterojunction blend morphology is demonstrated using a flexible linker (FL) approach. By polymerizing short fully-conjugated segments with flexible aliphatic chains, polymers offering independent tunability of the conjugation length and chain rigidity are demonstrated. For FL-pBTTT, a remarkable effect on the chain self-assembly is revealed that affords control between distinct thin-film morphologies and allows new insights into the important factors that direct microstructure and control charge transport in the thin film.[1] Moreover, our FL approach is found to offer a unique method to control small-molecule systems. Using FL-DPP(TBFu)2 as an additive in DPP(TBFu)2 based OFETs and OPVs provides control over domain size, and long-range charge transport, while also significantly improving the thermal stability of the thin-film morphology. These results are examined in the perspective of crystal nucleation and growth dynamics to offer further insight. [1] A. Gasperini, S. Bivaud, K. Sivula, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 4922-4927.

Authors : Luca Moretti 1, Luigino Criante 2, Guglielmo Lanzani 2, Giulio Cerullo 1, Francesco Scotognella 1
Affiliations : 1 Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy; 2 Center for Nanoscience and Technology @POLIMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Pascoli

Resume : Liquid crystals can be aligned in response to an electric field and conjugated polymers act as good optical absorbers, both classes of organic material are well known from two rather different research areas [1]. Blends of these materials benefiting from their typical characteristics have as yet not been deeply pursued. Here we present the investigation of a blend in which F8BT acts as optically active part and 5CB as nematic liquid crystal aligned by an external electric field in order to obtain a new functional material, where a field assisted modulation allows the tuning of the optical properties. To unveil the mechanisms involved in the interaction of the two materials we performed ultrafast pump-probe characterization with and without applied electric field. This field enables the variation of inter- and/or intra-chain interaction. By applying the electric field the formation of a novel positive transient absorption band is observed, generally assigned to the stimulated emission (SE)[2], which increases proportionally to the intensity of the electric field. The results are explained as a change of the orientation and the nanostructure domains of the polymer. Moreover, the SE dynamics have lifetimes longer than the neat polymer: this is a very important condition for optoelectronic and lasing applications. [1] P . G . de Gennes. Oxford Clarendon, 1974; J. Clark et al. Nature Photonics, 4, 2010. [2] M.A. Stevens et al. J. Physical Review B, 63, 2001

Authors : 1) Tianchen Zhang, David Guerin, Stephane Lenfant, Dominique Vuillaume, Fabien Alibart, Kamal Lmimouni. 2) A. Yassin, M. Ocafrain, Jean Roncali, Philippe Blanchard.
Affiliations : 1) IEMN, CNRS & Univ. Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. 2) MOLTECH-Anjou, CNRS & Univ. Angers, Angers, France.

Resume : We use redox hybrid materials (Au NPs, 2 and 10 nm in diameter, functionalized by ethylene dioxythiophene derivatives, AuNP/EDOT) deposited between 2 planar electrodes (2 μm apart) and electropolymerized in situ to growth a continuous polymer PEDOT with embedded AuNPs. We demonstrate that the current-voltage curves (IVs) exhibit two interesting behaviors : a NDR (negative differential resistance) behavior and a memory behavior. When we sweep the voltage back and forth between -40V and 40V, we clearly and repeatedly observe a peak in the IVs Two almost symmetric peaks are observed at +/- 5-7 V. The amplitude of the peak depends on the voltage sweep rates, while Vpeak remains in the same range. A blank experiment (PEDOT without AuNP) does not show any NDR effect. Thus, this NDR feature can be ascribed specifically to this hybrid AuNP/redox material. Using a different voltage sweep sequence, a memory effect is also demonstrated. with an on/off current ratio of about 1E3 to 1E4. The time stability of the on and off states is quite good (tested up to 7h) demonstrating a non-volatile memory. The memory effect is also preserved when repeating the cycles (100 for this test), while in this latter case we have observed an increase of the off current with the number of cycles. In conclusion the combination of a memory and NDR effects in the same device is unique and may be interesting for specific applications (e.g. neuro-inspired circuits with learning capabilities).

Authors : N. El Bachiria, C. Renaudb, P. Y. Chenc, S. H. Yang c, T. P. Nguyen a*
Affiliations : aInstitut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes, France b LAPLACE, University of Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 ,France. c Institute of Lighting and Energy Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Tainan City 71150, Taiwan R.O.C.

Resume : Defects in organic solar cells impact strongly on their performance by trapping of the charge carriers in different parts of the cells. It has been demonstrated that they play a prime role in the degradation process of devices [1]. The formation of defects in organic devices has been studied by several techniques but many aspects of the mechanism have not been elucidated so far. In particular, for inverted structures the use of oxide layer either on the anode or the cathode side may constitute supplementary sources of defects. We have investigated defects in inverted structure using P3HT:PCBM blend as an active materials. We applied the charge based Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (Q-DLTS) to devices of structure ITO/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/WO3/Au. The energy conversion efficiency of the inverted solar cells is ~ 3.3%. The Q-DLTS spectra show two distinct charge peaks, which correspond to two different relaxation mechanisms. The high relaxation time mechanism is similar to that observed in standard devices [1], which was attributed to the defects of the P3HT:PCBM blend. These defects comprise several energy levels in the range of 10 to 450 meV. The low relaxation time peak, which corresponds to a shallow trap level, is assigned to interface defects, probably originated from zinc oxide contact with the blend. The characteristics of the defects are comparable to those found in ZnO crystal. [1] T. P. Nguyen, C. Renaud, F. Reisdorffer, L. Wang, Journal of Energy Photonics 2 (2012) 021013-1/12, Degradation of PCBM :P3HT organic photovoltaic cells and structure changes as determined by defect investigations


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Symposium organizers
Mariano CAMPOY QUILES (Main)Material Science Institute of Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC)

Campus Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona - Bellaterra 08193, Spain

+34 935 801 853
Christian MÜLLERChalmers University of Technology

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Göteborg, Sweden
Alberto SalleoStanford University, Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials

McCullough Building Room 239 USA

+1 650 725 1025
Maria Antonietta LOIOptoElectronics Department of the Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen

Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen The Netherlands