Biomaterials and soft materialsO
Bioinspired and biointegrated materials as new frontiers nanomaterials
This symposium is composed of SPECIAL SESSIONS covering hot topics such as biomimetic materials, supramolecular nanomaterials and smart materials. These materials find applications in a range of fields encompassing smart living building and human health.
The newest research ideas and nanotechnologies from smart (nano)materials, integrated systems to robotic devices will be presented. The covered themes include tissue and organ regeneration (e.g. skin, bone tissue and neural networks) as well as implantable bionic systems.
These systems can include, but is not limited to, molecular systems, nanomaterials (templated by biomolecules such as viruses, marine plants, proteins, pigments), nanoparticles as nanorobots for in vivo applications, supramolecular complexes, inorganic NPs.
The symposium will bring together researchers from chemical, physical sciences and bio - science and – nanotechnology biomaterials for nanomedicine and engineering bio - electronic, - photonic, - magnetic nanosystems to discuss the latest advancements.
Proposed subjects for discussions at this event have actuality for Investigators - Collaborators of the EU COST Actions, as and the EU HORIZON 2020-2025 Projects.
A special Young Scientist FORUM (hosting Post-Graduate, PhD and Graduate students’ talks) will be held at the symposium’s second day.
Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:
- Design and synthesis of (supramolecular) materials and their action in bio – mimetic material synthesis;
- Bioinspired inorganic, smart nanoparticles (NPs);
- Design and creation of smart supramolecular materials and their biohybrids;
- Novel concepts in nano - characterization, bio-recognition of smart and specially bio-hybrid stimuli responsive nanomaterials with applications for clinical, food and environmental monitoring;
- Molecularly imprinted materials;
- Smart, biomimetic materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering;
- Electronic/photonic/magnetic smart biomolecules (nucleic acids, virus, marine plants proteins, pigments) and their mimetic analogues;
- Biosensing devices for medical (in vivo and in vitro diagnostics) and environmental biotechnologies: developed 3rd generation biosensors, carbon 2D materials, bioelectronic textiles, printed paper electronics, electronic skin);
- International Journal of NANOMEDICINE, Editor-in-Chief Dr. Tomas J. Webster (5 year IF = 5.038) https://www.dovepress.com/journal-editor-international-journal-of-nanomedicine-eic5
- DE GRUYTER Open Chemistry Peer-reviewed open access journal. www.openchemistry.com Instructions for authors are available here.
Open Chemistry Managing Editor - AgnieszkaTopolska Agnieszka.Topolska@degruyter.com
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Smart Nanomaterials and Nanosystems Strategy from Nature FORUM : Chairs - Dr. Emmanuel I.Stratakis (Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers -FRT Hellas,Greece), Professors: Insung S. Choi (KAIST,Korea), Bert Mueller (University of Basel, Switzerland),Yutaka Wakayama (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan), Joerg K.N.Linder ( Universitat Paderborn, Germany), Roger Woerdenweber (Universitat zu Koeln, Germany)
Authors : Prof. Dr. Bert Muller
Affiliations : Director, Biomaterials Science Center (BMC), University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14 4123 Allschwil Switzerlan firstname.lastname@example.org
Resume : Biomaterials nanoscience and nanotechnology development determinate Nanomedicine success because Nanomedicine, also termed nanotechnology-enabled medicine , is the science and technology of diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases and traumatic injuries, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving health using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body according to the European Science Foundation. To clearly distinguish nanomedicine from established treatment forms, it can alternatively be defined as characterizing hard and soft tissues on the nanometer scale and tailoring nanostructured man-made materials for improving human health. The understanding of tissue organization down to its nanometer-size components and the development of interrelated tools to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases are essential steps in current clinically applied science. The societal need for cost-effective improvements of patient health thereby motivates the research activities in nanomedicine and their scientific approaches . These efforts are converged on targeting applications in orthopedics and dentistry; oral and musculoskeletal biology are both largely driven by mechanical forces, and the prosthesis materials in both applications require matching the unique nanostructure and material properties of the host tissues .It makes sense to adopt the principals of Nature and take advantage of these.  B. Müller, Nanomedicine at a glance Book chapter 1 "in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Advances and Developments in Nano-sized Materials? (Ed. M.Van de Voorde) De Gruyter (2018) pp. 3-15 DOI:10.1117/12.2317867  C. Netzer, P. Distel, U. Wolfram, H. Deyhle, G. F. Jost, S. Schären, J.Geurts Comparative analysis of bone structural parameters reveals subchondral cortical plate resorption and increased trabecular bone remodeling in human facet joint osteoarthritis International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (2018) 854 DOI:10.3390/ijms19030845  C. Bikis, L. Degrugillier, P. Thalmann, G. Schulz, B. Müller, S. E.Hieber, D. F. Kalbermatten, S. Madduri Three-dimensional imaging and analysis of entire peripheral nerves after repair and reconstruction, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 295 (2018) 37-44 DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2017.11.015
Authors : Professor, PhD in Physics Emmanuel Stratakis
Affiliations : 1 Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Heraklion, 71003, Greece; email: email@example.com 2 Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71003, Greece
Resume : The surface topography of biomaterials can have an important impact on the cellular adhesion, growth and proliferation. Apart from the overall roughness, the detailed morphological features at all length scales, significantly affect the cell-biomaterial interactions in a plethora of applications including structural implants, tissue engineering scaffolds and biosensors. We present simple, one-step direct femtosecond (fs) laser processing patterning techniques to fabricate various types of micro/nano structured biomaterials platforms. Variation of the laser fluence, alters the surface morphology of solid materials, leading to a rippled-type, at lower laser fluences, or a conical spiked-type morphology, as the laser fluence increases. Hierarchically-structured cell culture platforms incorporating gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific bio-functional moieties have been additionally developed. Cells with nerve cell phenotype were cultured on the substrates. More specifically, PC12 cells cultured on the developed substrates and treated with nerve growth factor showed a differentiation response that was highly dependent on the surface topography. While, experiments with DRG/SCG nerve cells showed a differential orientation of the cells, depending of the underlying geometry of the laser engineered surface structures. Depending on the laser processing conditions, distinct SW10 cell-philic or cell-repellent patterned areas can be attained with a desired motif, enabling spatial patterning of cells in a controllable manner. Furthermore, we report on the fs laser microfabrication of porous collagen scaffolds, providing implants that via precise micron-sized features held the promise to control neuron cell phenotypes. Finally, the fs laser fabrication of a novel microfluidic platform for the study of the combined effect of fluid shear forces and culture substrate morphology on neuron cell proliferation and directionality will be demonstrated. Our work provides a versatile laser-based biofabrication approach to tune neuron cell responses by proper selection of the surface free energy of the substrate and may be promising for the design of cell culture biomaterial platforms for neural tissue engineering applications.
Authors : Full Professor, Dr. K. Haupt, PhD stuents Paulina Medina Rangel and Jingjing Xu, PhD Bernadete Tse Sum Bui
Affiliations : CNRS Institute for Enzyme and Cell Engineering, Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France, firstname.lastname@example.org
Resume : Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic antibody mimics that specifically recognize molecular targets. They are highly cross-linked polymers synthesized in the presence of the target molecule ore an epitope thereof, acting as a molecular template. This templating induces three-dimensional binding sites in the polymer that are complementary to the template in size, shape and chemical functionality. The synthetic antibody can recognize and bind its target with an affinity and selectivity similar to a biological antibody Herein, we demonstrate the potential of MIPs for antibody therapy on the example of two cell surface biomarker targets, glycans and a cell-cell adhesion protein. We also present the potential use of MIPs for the inhibition of cellvirus interactions. Finally, their applications in diagnostics and bioanalysis will be demonstrated.
Authors : Reem Hanna,1,2 Snehal Dalvi,1,3 Tudor Sălăgean,4 Ioana Delia Pop,4 Ioana Roxana Bordea,5,* Stefano Benedicenti1,* email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Affiliations : 1Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, Laser Therapy Centre, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Department of Oral Surgery, Dental Institute, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 3Department of Periodontology, Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur, India; 4Department of Land Measurements and Exact Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 5Department of Oral Rehabilitation, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Resume : Initially, the SARS-CoV-2 virus was considered as a pneumonia virus; however, a series of peer reviewed medical papers published in the last eight months suggest that this virus attacks the brain, heart, intestine, nervous and vascular systems, as well the blood stream. Although many facts remain unknown, an objective appraisal of the current scientific literature addressing the latest progress on COVID-19 is required. The aim of the present study was to conduct a critical review of the literature, focusing on the current molecular structure of SARS-CoV-2 and prospective treatment modalities of COVID-19. The main objectives were to collect, scrutinize and objectively evaluate the current scientific evidence-based information, as well to provide an updated overview of the topic that is ongoing. The authors underlined potential prospective therapies, including vaccine and phototherapy, as a monotherapy or combined with current treatment modalities. The authors concluded that this review has produced high quality evidence, which can be utilized by the clinical scientific community for future reference, as the knowledge and understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are evolving, in terms of its epidemiological, pathogenicity, and clinical manifestations, which ultimately map the strategic path, towards an effective and safe treatment and production of a reliable and potent vaccine. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, virus pathogenicity, cytokines storm, diagnostic methods, immunotherapy, vaccine, antiviral, photobiomodulation therapy, PBMT, photodynamic therapy, PDT, clinical trials
Authors : Valerio Voliani
Affiliations : Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, P.zza San Silvestro, 12 - 56127, Pisa (PI), Italy.
Resume : Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted increasing interest for their potentiality to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, especially neoplasms. Nonetheless, there are still no clinically approved NPs for cancer therapy/diagnostic and very few candidates are in clinical trials. The clinical translation of NPs is mainly prevented by their persistence in organism after the medical action. Such persistence increases the likelihood of toxicity and the interference with common medical diagnoses. Size-reduction to ultrasmall nanoparticles (USNPs) is a suitable approach to promote metal excretion by the renal pathway, however altering most of the behaviors of NPs. A groundbreaking advance to jointly combine the appealing features of NPs with metal excretion relies on the ultrasmall-in-nano approach. Within this approach, we have designed inorganic all-in-one biodegradable nano-platforms comprising plasmonic USNPs: the nature-inspired passion fruit-like nano-architectures (NAs). The versatility of NAs production will be presented, together with the significant metal-excretion trend from murine models and preliminary applications, in particular for photothermal treatments. Furthermore, the last achievements from this novel approach will be discussed and the next exciting perspectives provided. Such nano-architectures might bring again noble metal nanomaterials to the forefront of cancer theranostics, in order to treat carcinomas in a less invasive and more efficient manner. The research leading to these results has received funding from AIRC under MFAG 2017 ? ID 19852 project ? P.I. Voliani Valerio.
Authors : Yutaka Wakayama
Affiliations : International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS)
Resume : A main purpose of this study is to develop a new ultra-highly sensitive sensor in particular for the detection of Cs+ ions in natural water. The long-time effect of radioactivity of Cs+ is known to be responsible for dramatic health condition of humans, as well as aquatic plants and animals. Therefore, the detection and monitoring of Cs+ ions in natural water are necessary. Our sensor is based on an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) structure, which is composed of three main components: (1) organic semiconducting channel with high stability in working with natural water, (2) monolayer lipid membrane working as ultra-thin dielectric layer to allow low operating voltage and high sensitivity, and (3) novel calixarene-crown ether probe for high selectivity to Cs+, which is grafted with the lipid layer. In comparison with other conventional methods like ICP-MS, our sensor has many advantages: portability for on-site monitoring, high sensitivity on the femtomolar (pg/l) level of Cs+ ion and a high selectivity against competing ions, such as K+, Na+ and Cl-.
Authors : Monica Marini1, S. Stassi,1 M. Allione,2 B. Torre,2 A. Giugni,2 M. Moretti,2 C.F. Pirri,1 C. Ricciardi,1 E. Di Fabrizio1
Affiliations : 1 Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Polytechnic of Turin, Italy 2 SMILEs Lab, PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
Resume : Super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS) with regular patterns of micropillars were used to suspend DNA molecules and DNA after its interaction with other compounds such as protein, intercalants, and chemotherapeutic drugs. Briefly, a 5l droplet of a physiological-compatible solution containing nucleic acids and ligands is pipetted on the SHS. At temperature and humidity-controlled conditions the solution evaporates, and the droplet reduces the volume retracting from one pillar to the following one. The DNA helices follow this movement and the molecules linked to the top of one pillar are pulled to the next in line. With this technique we obtained free-standing self-assembled back ground-free DNA bundles, analysed by several techniques such as Raman Spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Laser Doppler Vibrometer. The strategy shown allows studying the native characteristics of DNA helices and their alterations to the pristine conditions, showing a great potential in medical-oriented research.
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YOUNG INVESTIGATOR FORUM Salutation to Nature : Invited Organizers/Chairs - PhD, Post-Doctoral Researchers Nanasaheb D.Thorat (Poland) and Katharina Brassat (Germany), PhD students Toshifumi Imajo (Japan) and Ana Arché Núñez (Spain), MS student Ting-Yu Lu (Taiwan)
Authors : Monica Marini1, S. Stassi 1, M. Allione 2, B. Torre 2, A. Giugni 2, M. Moretti 2, C.F. Pirri 1, C. Ricciardi 1, E. Di Fabrizio 1
Affiliations : 1 Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Polytechnic of Turin, Italy 2 SMILEs Lab, PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
Resume : Recently, we used super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS) to obtain suspended DNA molecules and bundles with a simplified physiological-compatible preparation procedure. A droplet of a saline solution containing nucleic acids is deposited over the SHS and at room temperature it spontaneously dehydrates and retracts from one pillar to the next in line without collapsing. The DNA molecules linked to the top of a pillar are pulled, following the drop movement: with this method we obtained free-standing self-assembled DNA fibers, studied by HRTEM [1,2], Raman Spectroscopy [3,4] and Laser Doppler Vibrometer . The DNA-SHS platform allows characterizing native nucleic acids molecules and the variations to the pristine conditions as the ones occurring after the interaction with ligands such as intercalants, chemotherapeutic drugs and proteins by using different techniques and achieving quantitative information. This approach can find its application in medical-oriented research for personalized drugs administration (e.g., CisPt-DNA adducts), food safety (e.g., mycotoxins-DNA adducts), and the study of environmental pollutants effects on the double helix.
Invited Presentations : The 7en minutes Report on Frontier Research
Authors : M. Marini,1 S. Stassi,1 M. Allione,2 B. Torre,2 A. Giugni,2 M. Moretti,2 C.F. Pirri,1 C. Ricciardi,1 E. Di Fabrizio, 1
Affiliations : 1 DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. 2 PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia.
Resume : Recently we obtained free-standing self-assembled biomolecules fibers, by using a physiological-compatible preparation and super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS). A droplet of the biomolecule solution is deposited over the SHS. At room temperature, the water in solution evaporates: the droplet decreases in volume and moves from one pillar to the next. With this method the molecules in solution are pulled and linked between micro-pillars. We suspended DNA, DNA/ligands, and cell membranes that were characterized by EM, Raman Spectroscopy and Laser Doppler Vibrometer. The DNA fibers allowed us obtaining background-free TEM direct images and measuring DNA bases and backbone without the use of contrast agents, with a resolution of 1.5 Å. TEM diffraction confirmed the quantities measured. Raman spectroscopy data expanded the EM data with structural/chemical information on DNA monomers, conformation and fluctuations related to the environment. DNA bundles were also used as ultrasensitive mechanical resonators to detect and study deviations to the native form, by administering intercalants and the chemotherapy cisplatin at increasing concentration. Alteration to sizes and Young’s modulus were successfully quantified. Overall, the results show that our approach can be applied to medical-oriented developments such as the optimal chemotherapy titration and the evaluation of the effects on DNA of pollutants and contaminants such as heavy metals.
Authors : Guillaume THOMAS,1 Laurent SCHLUR,1 Jean-Philippe BRACH, Geoffrey GERER,1,2 Thomas COTTINEAU,2 Marc COMET,1 Valérie KELLER2 and Denis SPITZER1
Affiliations : 1 NS3E (Nanomatériaux pour les Systèmes Sous Sollicitations Extrêmes), ISL-CNRS-UNISTRA ? UMR 3208, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis, 5 rue du Général Cassagnou, B.P. 70034, 68301 Saint-Louis CEDEX, France; 2 Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l’Energie, l’Environnement et la Santé (ICPEES) UMR 7515 CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, 25 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
Resume : Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) and explosives detection with a high sensitivity and selectivity is crucial due to the growing threats from terrorist organizations to human health. Fast, selective and sensitive sensing methods are required to reduce the threat against CWAs. Microgravimetric sensor platforms with chemo or physico-selective interfaces offer an ideal solution to the previous drawbacks. We developed a bio-inspired nanostructured and functionalized cantilever for the detection of ultralow concentrations of explosives and simulants (DMMP (DiMethyl MethylPhosphonate) of CWA with different materials (TiO2, ZnO, CuO and Cu(OH)2) and morphologies (nanotubes or nanorods) in order to increase the surface area of adsorption and the limit of detection. This strategy of nanostructuration and functionalization promises significant improvements over existing sensors and for the next generation of cantilevers.
Authors : Alesh Kumar and C. R. Mariappan
Affiliations : Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119,India Registered email id: email@example.com
Resume : Bioactive materials are designed to interface with biological systems to treat, augment, or replace any tissue, organ, or function of the body. Among the different types of biomaterials, the mesoporous bioactive glass-ceramics (MBCs) are containing control amount of different ions with the aim of different activity like as antibacterial, osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of different composition of silver containing MBCs. Bioactive glass-ceramics were synthesized by used CTAB. The introduction of Ag2O into the MBCs is intended to minimize the risk of microbial contamination through the potential antimicrobial activity of the leaching silver ions. The prepared samples were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy(HR-TEM). The SAXS patterns of samples show the agglomerates of ~15.3 nm average size with high polydispersity in size and size of the agglomerates varies from 2-40 nm range. FT-IR spectra show possible stretching and bending vibration modes of silicate and borate groups. HR-TEM confirms the mesoporous nature of MBCs. Bioactivity of MBCs was investigated by immersion of samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time point followed by XRD and FTIR studies. The XRD patterns clearly show diffraction peaks of bone-like hydroxyapatite after immersion in DMEM. Silver-MBCs nanoparticles and there ionic dissolution extracts exhibited antibacterial effect against both positive and negative bacteria. Keywords:Bioactive glass-ceramics, Biocompatibility, Hydroxyapatite
Authors : Monica Marini 1, Bruno Torre 2, Marco Allione 2, Maria Caterina Morello 2, Manola Moretti 2, Andrea Giugni 2, Enzo di Fabrizio 1
Affiliations : 1 DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org 2 SMILEs Lab, PSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Resume : Oriented and self-organized DNA filaments were obtained by micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The bio-macromolecule, suspended over the SHS, can be characterized by using several techniques, such as electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. DNA direct imaging by high resolution TEM (HRTEM) allowed solving the base pairs with a resolution of 1.5 Å [1,2] and the metrological details can be effectively corroborated by Raman spectroscopy data [3,4]. Raman spectra in the range 600-1800 cm-1 were acquired on suspended DNA filaments and on the droplet residual. The spectra obtained at the same working conditions on DNA samples and buffer deposited over a CaF2 window were used as negative control. The study of the spectra revealed the absence of physiologically compatible buffers on suspended filaments while their contribution is strong in the DNA spectra acquired on CaF2 windows and on the droplet residual. This suggests that the optimized SHS platform separates small molecules from the suspended DNA and the non-interacted material is concentrated in the droplet residual. The SHS-DNA platform revealed a strong potential for the study of polarized Raman spectra as the DNA filaments are autonomously oriented with different angles over the device and for the analysis of the presence and influence of molecules affecting the DNA double helix such as chemotherapeutic compound (Cisplatin), heavy metals and methylations.
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NEW FRONTIERS in MULTI-DIMENSIONAL CARBONS : Invited Chairs Prof.Dr.Peter SCHARFF, Prof.Dr.Uwe Ritter, Dr. Nikos G. TSIERKEZOS (TU of llmenau, Germany), Dr.Prof.Maurizio Prato (Università di Trieste, Italy) and Dr.Alberto Bianco. (University of Strasbourg, France)
Authors : Prof. Dr. Peter Scharff
Affiliations : TU Ilmenau, Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Weimarer Straße 25 (Curiebau), D-98693 Ilmenau, Germany. email@example.com
Resume : Graphite is composed of layers of linked carbon hexagons. Between the layers, base metals such as potassium and the like, but also metal compounds can be incorporated, forming new substances (GIV). In high-temperature electrolyses any GIV formed may destroy the carbon electrodes. In other processes, such as the production of graphite foils, a versatile material with outstanding chemical and physical properties, make GIV the crucial intermediate. The electrochemical behavior of GIV opened up the possibility of constructing new high-performance lithium-GIV battery systems. New carbon compounds are found and their reaction behaviour characterized . In addition to graphite and diamond, the group of fullerenes is the third carbon form, which has been experimentally accessible by graphite evaporation in the carbon arc. In the case of graphite evaporation, in addition to the fullerenes, similarly constructed carbon tubes. Buckminsterfullerene is soluble in organic solvents and gives a brownish product in the solid state. Fullerenes with many inorganic and organic substances react to form derivatives that have interesting physical properties and potential applications in the field of superconductivity and nonlinear optics. Fullerene research is an area of research in chemistry, materials science, physics and medicine. . Considering of CNTs, our research is focused on the study of CNT synthesis and growth mechanisms upon thermal chemical vapour deposition, and their electrochemical properties. The functionalization of CNTs, through a chemical attachment of either molecules or functional groups to their sidewalls, is an effective way to improve their solubility and to enhance their physical properties that make them of potentially useful for technological applications ranging from nanoelectronics, sensors and electrochemical devices to composite materials. Graphene is the carbon fourth form: the 2D material graphene, made of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice, has its peculiar mechanical, electronic, optical, and transport properties. Many of these features result solely from the symmetry properties of the honeycomb lattice. The chemical modification can be achieved via either covalent or non-covalent interactions. Covalent modifications often destroy some of the graphene conjugation system, resulting in compromising some of its properties.. 1. Gupta, Vinay; Scharff, Peter; et al., C60 intercalated graphite: a new form of carbon. - In: Fullerenes, nanotubes & carbon nanostructures : An international and interdisciplinary journal.: Taylor & Francis, 13.2005, Suppl. 1, S. 427-430, http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/FST-200039421 2. H.M. Kuznietsova, O.V. Lynchak, N.V. Dziubenko, V.L. Osetskyi, O.V. Ogloblya, YuI. Prylutskyy, V.K. Rybalchenko, U. Ritter, P. Scharff, Water-soluble C60 fullerenes reduce manifestations of acute cholangitis in rats // Applied Nanoscience (2018), P.1–8, DOI: 10.1007/s13204-018-0700-5 3. Szroeder,PawełTsierkezos, Nikos G.; Walczyk, Mariusz; Strupi´nski, Włodzimierz; Górska-Pukownik, Agnieszka; Strzelecki, Janusz; Wiwatowski, Kamil; Scharff, Peter; Ritter, Uwe, Insights into electrocatalytic activity of epitaxial graphene on SiC from cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance spectroscopy. - Journal of Solid-state electrochemistry: current research and development in science and technology. - Berlin: Springer, 18 (2014), 9, 2555-2562,
Authors : Maurizio Prato
Affiliations : Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy Centre for Cooperative Research in Biomaterials, biomaGUNE, 20009 Donostia - San Sebastián, Spain
Resume : Nanostructured interfaces can be shaped for the molecular control of physical/chemical adsorption, with enhanced surface area to promote interfacial chemistry, nano-catalysis, and bio-inspired interfaces. For instance, connecting nanostructured materials to biological compartments is a crucial step in prosthetic applications, where the interfacing surfaces should provide minimal undesired perturbation to the target tissue. Ultimately, the (nano)material of choice has to be biocompatible and promote cellular growth and adhesion with minimal cytotoxicity or dis-regulation of, for example, cellular activity and proliferation. In this context, carbon nanomaterials, including nanotubes and graphene, are particularly well suited for the design and construction of functional interfaces. This is mainly due to the extraordinary properties of these novel materials, which combine mechanical strength, thermal and electrical conductivity. Our group has been involved in the organic functionalization of various types of nanocarbons, including carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and, more recently, graphene. The organic functionalization offers the great advantage of producing soluble and easy-to-handle materials. As a consequence, since biocompatibility is expected to improve upon functionalization, many modified carbon nanomaterials may be useful in the field of nanomedicine. In particular, we have recently shown that carbon nanotubes and graphene can act as active substrates for neuronal growth, a field that has given so far very exciting results. Nanotubes and graphene are compatible with neurons, but, especially, they play a very interesting role in interneuronal communication. Improved synaptic communication is just one example. During this talk, we will discuss the latest and most exciting results obtained in our laboratories in these fast developing fields.
Authors : K. Wu, L. Nie, A. C. Nusantara and R. Schirhagl
Affiliations : University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Resume : Low concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate various signaling processes in phagocytic cells (e.g. macrophages) when infected by bacteria. Production of a suitable probe is needed to measure these events. However, most methods used to investigate the intracellular ROS share the same problems, including photobleaching, low sensitivity, lack of spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we elucidate the utility of diamond magnetometry for studying the transient free radical response of macrophages upon Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection, without influence on the intracellular redox reactions or enzymatic activity. Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond crystals can detect magnetic noise nearby (< 10 nm), which is produced by the spin of unpaired electrons of free radicals3. Diamond magnetometry is specific for paramagnetic ROS also called free radicals (for example nitric oxide, superoxide anion radicals, or hydroxyl radical). They are particularly important since they are the most reactive ROS[1,5,6]. In this study, we report the formation and characterization of nanodiamond-bacteria conjugates, S. aureus-FNDs. By using these conjugates, we can optically monitor the transient free radicals in phagosomes via measuring the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) of NV defects after macrophages internalized the conjugates. In conjunction with appropriate control groups, bacteria-FNDs conjugates appear to be a powerful tool for unraveling bacteria-infected pathways and pathogenesis that involve free radicals. References  Dupré‐Crochet, S.; Erard, M.; Nüβe, O., ROS production in phagocytes: why, when, and where? Journal of leukocyte biology 2013, 94 (4), 657-670.  Nüsse, O., Biochemistry of the phagosome: the challenge to study a transient organelle. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 2011, 11.  Perona Martínez, F.; Nusantara, A. C.; Chipaux, M.; Padamati, S. K.; Schirhagl, R., Nanodiamond Relaxometry-Based Detection of Free-Radical Species When Produced in Chemical Reactions in Biologically Relevant Conditions. ACS Sensors 2020.  Morita, A.; Nusantara, A. C.; Martinez, F. P. P.; Hamoh, T.; Damle, V. G.; van der Laan, K. J.; Sigaeva, A.; Vedelaar, T.; Chang, M.; Chipaux, M., Quantum monitoring the metabolism of individual yeast mutant strain cells when aged, stressed or treated with antioxidant. arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.16130 2020.  McCord, J. M.; Fridovich, I., The utility of superoxide dismutase in studying free radical reactions I. radicals generated by the interaction of sulfite, dimethyl sulfoxide, and oxygen. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1969, 244 (22), 6056-6063.  Wang, Q.; Ding, F.; Zhu, N.; Li, H.; He, P.; Fang, Y., Determination of hydroxyl radical by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Journal of Chromatography A 2003, 1016 (1), 123-128.
Authors : Ph.D student Alexina Ollier1,2, Marcin Kisiel1, Rémi Pawlak1, Urs Gysin1, Erio Tosatti3 and Ersnt Meyer1
Affiliations : 1 Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland 2 Swiss Nanoscience Institute, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel, Switzerland 3 SISSA, Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, Italy
Resume : Understanding nanoscale energy dissipation is nowadays among few priorities particularly in solid state systems. Breakdown of topological protection, loss of quantum information and disorder-assisted hot electrons scattering in graphene are just few examples of systems, where the presence of energy dissipation has a great impact on the studied object . It is therefore critical to know, how and where energy leaks. Pendulum geometry Atomic Force Microscope (pAFM), oscillating like a pendulum over the surface, is perfectly suited to measure such tiny amount of dissipation [2,3], since a minimum detectable power loss is of the order of aW. We report on a low temperature (T=5K) measurement of striking singlets or multiplets of dissipation peaks above graphene nanodrums surface. The stress present in the structure leads to formation of few nanometre sized graphene wrinkles and the observed dissipation peaks are attributed to tip-induced charge state transitions in quantum-dot-like entities. The dissipation peaks strongly depend on the external magnetic field (B=0T-2T). The magnetic field induce Peierls phase that shit the peaks to lower energy. At large magnetic field this shift induces the vanishing of the peaks.  – D. Halbertal, et.al., Nanoscale thermal imaging of dissipation in quantum systems, Nature539, (2016), 407–410.  - B.C. Stipe, et.al., Noncontact Friction and Force Fluctuations between Closely Spaced Bodies, Phys. Rev. Lett.87, (2001), 096801.  - M. Kisiel, et.al., Suppression of electronic friction on Nb films in the superconducting state, Nature Materials10, (2011), 119-122.
Authors : Alexina Ollier1,2, Marcin Kisiel1, Urs Gysin1 and Ernst Meyer1
Affiliations : 1 Institute of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland 2 Swiss Nanoscience Institute, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
Resume : Understanding nanoscale energy dissipation is nowadays among few priorities particularly in solid state systems. Breakdown of topological protection, loss of quantum information and disorder–assisted hot electrons scattering in graphene are just few examples of systems, where the presence of energy dissipation has a great impact on the studied object. It is therefore critical to know, how and where energy leaks. High sensitivity pendulum geometry Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), oscillating like a pendulum over the surface, is perfectly suited to measure tiny amount of dissipation. The tip position on the sample is controlled with atomic accuracy owing to a tunneling current line and the enhanced sensitivity allows to distinguish between electronic, phononic or van der Waals types of dissipation. Measurements can be performed in a wide range of temperatures from 5K to room temperature and in magnetic ﬁelds spanning from B=0T to B=7T. The design of the sample holder allows to perform dissipation measurements while passing electric current in the plane of the sample surface. In this work we performed energy dissipation measurements on a suspended graphene sheet at room temperature under UHV. The graphene is deposited on a hole patterned substrate in order to have suspended circular (with a diameter of 6.5 µm) graphene sheet. The experiments allows to investigate the phononic and electronic energy dissipation of the suspended graphene.
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Stimuli - Responsive Materials, Surfaces/Interfaces and Systems : The E-MRS Invited Organizer/Chair Dr. Donata Iandolo (Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, University of Lyon, Universite Jean Monnet, INSERM, France)
Authors : Katalin Balázsi, Csaba Balázsi
Affiliations : Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege M. str. 29-33, 1121 Budapest, Hungary
Resume : The 400 000 artificial hip joint operations made every year in the word and there are 25 000 000 people with a total hip replacement. The wear and risk of the implant loosening increases so that after 10 years 10-20% of the implants have to be renewed. Biomaterials used for implant should possess some important properties in order to long-term usage in the body without rejection. The biocompatibility, mechanical, chemical and surface properties play a key role in the creation of sufficient and long term functional replacements. New fundamental research outcomes with industrial perspectives are given for understanding the applications of ceramics in load-bearing and low-load-bearing bioimplants with directions for future developments. Nowadays, Si3N4 is a new bioceramic with extremely good mechanical properties. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used bioceramic in implantology considering its high bioactivity. A bioactive coating (HA) on the bioinert ceramic implant?s surface (Si3N4) could help avoid the rejection from the body in the critical early few days after the operation. The preparation of bioceramics will be showed from traditional technologies to novel applications. The main trends and fundamental scientific problems will be discussed.
Authors : Patrick van Rijn
Affiliations : University of Groningen/ University Medical Center Groningen Department of BioMedical Engineering-FB40
Resume : Nanogels are hydrogel-based nanoparticles that are highly tunable in chemical composition and physicochemical properties. These nanoparticles are highly versatile in their uses and allow for several functions to be combined including antimicrobial properties, fluorescence and MRI tracking and imaging, anti-adhesive, controlled release, and responsiveness to various stimuli. Because of this variety of functions and properties, the particles are used in controlled delivery, imaging, theranostic approaches and functional biomedical multi-modal coatings. The studies presented provide insights in the capabilities of such nanogels, the preparation, modification, and the use of them together with biological systems ranging from in vitro studies to in vivo uses. The ease of scaling, the diversity, and ease of applicability make these particles very powerful and tremendously complement the existing nanotoolbox of liposomes, polymersomes, protein-based nanostructures, and inorganic nanoparticles.
Authors : Mark Schvartzman
Affiliations : Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Resume : The role of the spatial juxtaposition between activating and inhibitory receptors in cytotoxic lymphocytes has been strongly debated in the context of the inhibition of immune signaling. The challenge in addressing this problem was so far a lack of experimental tools which can simultaneously manipulate different signaling molecules. Here, we circumvented this challenge by introducing a nanoengineered multifunctional cell niche, in which activating and inhibitory ligands are positioned with molecular-scale variability and control, and applied it to elucidate the role of the spatial juxtaposition between ligands for NKG2D and KIR2DL1 – activating and inhibitory receptors in Natural Killer (NK) cells – in KIR2DL1-mediated inhibition of NKG2D signaling. We realized the niche by a nanopatterning of nanodots of different metals with molecular scale registry in one lithographic step, followed by a novel ternary functionalization of the fabricated bi-metallic pattern and its background with three distinct biochemical moieties. We found, that within the probed range, the 40 nm gap between the activating and inhibitory ligands provided an optimal inhibition condition. Supported by theoretical modeling and simulations, we interpret these findings as a consequence of the size and conformational flexibility of the ligands in their spatial interaction. Our findings provide an important insight into the spatial mechanism of the inhibitory immune checkpoints, whose understanding is both fundamentally important, and essential for the rational design of future immunotherapies. Furthermore, our approach is highly versatile and paves the way to numerous complex molecular platforms aimed at revealing molecular mechanisms through which receptors integrate their signals.
Authors : Csaba Balazsi
Affiliations : Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege M. str. 29-33, 1121 Budapest, Hungary
Resume : Ceramic structures at the nanometre range have been proven to have improved properties and characteristics that differ from their bulk, allowing for opportunities in novel technological applications. Ceramic layers with some advantages, including a very high surface-to-volume and aspect ratio can be processed by cheap and quick method, that is electrospraying. This presentation reviews results on the electrospinning and electrospraying of various bioceramic layers starting from biogenic raw materials and their potential applications in the biomedical field.
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FRONTIER RESEARCH in BIOMATERIALS and NANOMEDICINE FORUM : THE E-MRS INVITED Organizer/Chair Professor PEILIN CHEN Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Authors : Peilin Chen
Affiliations : Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, 128, Sect. 2 Academia Rd., Taipei 115
Resume : In this study, we employed a novel one step electrospinning process to fabricate poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) core/shell nanofiber structures with improved water resistance and good electrochemical properties. We then integrated a biocompatible polymer coating with three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT-based nanofiber devices for dynamic control over the capture/release performance of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) , as well as the label-free detection by using organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). The detailed capture/release behavior of the circulating tumor cells was studied using an organic bioelectronic platform comprising PEO/PEDOT:PSS nanofiber mats with 3 wt % (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane as an additive. We have demonstrated that these nanofiber mats deposited on five-patterned indium tin oxide finger electrodes are excellent candidates for use as functional bioelectronic interfaces for the isolation, detection, sequential collection, and enrichment of rare CTCs through electrical activation of each single electrode. This combination behaved as an ideal model system displaying a high cell-capture yield for antibody-positive cells while resisting the adhesion of antibody-negative cells. Taking advantage of the electrochemical doping/dedoping characteristics of PEDOT:PSS materials, the captured rare cells could be electrically triggered release through the desorption phenomena of PLL-g-PEG-biotin on device surface. More than 90% of the targeted cancer cells were captured on the 3D PEDOT-based nanofiber microfluidic device; over 87% of captured cancer cells were subsequently released for collection; approximately 80% of spiked cancer cells could be collected in a 96-well plate. For the OECT design, it was demonstrated for monitoring CTC-capture performance and identifying cancer cell phenotypes. This 3D PEDOT-based bioelectronic device approach appears to be an economical route for the large-scale preparation and detection of systems for enhancing the downstream characterization of rare CTCs.
Authors : Michihiro Nakamura
Affiliations : Professor and Chariman, Department of Organ Anatomy & Nanomedicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine
Resume : Medical applications of multifunctional nanoparticles are expected to be one of the most important possibilities in innovative medicine. Organosilica nanoparticles are novel nanomaterials that are prepared from a single organosilicate coupling agent (organotrialkoxysilane) such as 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. Organosilica nanoparticles are both structurally and functionally different from typical silica nanoparticles (inorganosilica nanoparticles) prepared from tetraalkoxysilane. The organosilica nanoparticles contain both interior and exterior functionalities such as mercaptopropyl residue as prepared. The organosilica nanoparticles allow for facile surface and internal functionalization, offering new opportunities to create multifunctionalized nanoparticles. Over the last two decades, research on the internal functionalization of organosilica nanoparticles has evolved. Various sizes of fluorescent organosilica nanoparticle containing various types of fluorescent dye including near infrared (NIR) dye can be prepared using a one-pot synthesis. In addition, functional fusions of organosilica nanoparticles and other functional nanoparticles such as quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, and iron oxides are possible based on organosilica particles technology. These multifunctionalized organosilica nanoparticles are useful for various imaging techniques such as in vivo imaging, cell labeling, time-lapse fluorescent imaging, and multimodal imaging. Multifunctionalized organosilica nanoparticles have high potential to create novel imaging systems and provide novel information of cell characteristics and functions. In recent year, we have launched additional research on surface functionalization of organosilica nanoparticles using biomolecules and polymers. Surface-functionalized organosilica nanoparticles revealed various alterations of the interaction with cells including tumor cells and macrophages. We applied multifunctionalized NIR organosilica nanoparticles to tumor-bearing mouse. The particles showed an accumulation on tumor tissue on NIR in vivo imaging, and damaged tumor cells by using photodynamic effect. Imaging and therapy using multifunctionalized organosilica nanoparticles allow for nano-theranostics.
Authors : Daisuke Miyoshi, Mitsuki Tsuruta, Nagisa Takamiya, Seina Yamashita, Wataru Sugimoto, Takeru Torii, Keiko Kawauchi
Affiliations : Faculty of Frontiers of Innovative Research in Science and Technology (FIRST), Konan University
Resume : Molecular environments inside cells are surprisingly crowded with numerous number of biomolecules. About 40 percent of the cell volume is occupied by biomolecules. Biochemical reactions are subject to be temporally, spatially, and specifically controlled. From biochemical and biophysical point of views, it is incredible that selective interactions and specific functionalization of biomolecules in the temporal and spatial-specific manner can be achieved under the complex molecular crowding environments. One of the key futures to achieve the specific interaction of biomolecules is collective biomolecular behavior. In recent years, biomolecular localization and compartmentation systems using droplets via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) inside cells, become one of the hottest research topics in biology. Droplets are temporarily formed, and their formation is reversible and responsive to various external signals, which are in contrast with aggregation of biomolecules which is generally irreversible. In this presentation, we will show a model system of a droplet in a test tube, in which we use nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) which form G-quadruplexes and arginine-rich peptides which do not have any stable structure. By mixing these two components, a rapid LLPS was observed. It was suggested that the G-quadruplex structure is critical for undergoing LLPS. In the talk, we would like to discuss property of the droplet as a biomaterial.
Authors : I-Chun Chen, Ting-Yu Lu, Kai-Fu Yu, Jiashing Yu
Affiliations : National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Resume : The native tissues are complex structures consisting of different cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and biomolecules. Traditional tissue engineering strategies have not been able to fully reproduce biomimetic and heterogeneous tissue constructs because of the lack of appropriate biomaterials and technologies. However, recently developed three-dimensional bioprinting techniques can be leveraged to produce biomimetic and complex tissue structures. To achieve this, multicomponent bioinks composed of multiple biomaterials (natural, synthetic, or hybrid biomaterials), different types of cells, and soluble factors have been developed. In addition, advanced bioprinting technologies have enabled us to print multimaterial bioinks with spatial and microscale resolution in a rapid and continuous manner, aiming to reproduce the complex architecture of the native tissues. In this study, we developmented a new formulation of bio-ink which is based on methacrylated keratin and methacrylated glycol chitosan. The feasibility of this bioink was tested with human adipose-derived stem cell toward specific differentiation conditions.
Authors : Hideaki Yamamoto1, Takuma Sumi1, Shigeo Sato1, Ayumi Hirano-Iwata1,2
Affiliations : 1. Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 2. WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
Resume : Nerve-cell culture takes an irreplaceable role in molecular and cellular neuroscience. However, its use in studies at the systems level has been limited due to the substantial difference between in vivo in vitro network dynamics. The dynamics is affected by the difference in the intercellular connectivity (Yamamoto et al., Sci. Adv. 4, eaau4914 (2018)), as well as by the excessively strong excitatory synapses in cultured neurons. Recently, a study was reported that stiff scaffolds enhance the strengths of excitatory synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons (Zhang et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 6215 (2014)). As neuronal cultures are generally performed on polystyrene or glass, which is approximately 10^6 to 10^7 times stiffer than the brain tissue, we hypothesized that the in vitro artifact in excitatory synaptic strength can be reduced by using a scaffold that mimics the elasticity of the brain tissue. Here we employed an ultrasoft silicone elastomer, whose elastic modulus resembles that of the brain tissue (~0.5 kPa), as a scaffold for culturing rat cortical neurons. We investigated the effect of the biomimetic elasticity on the strength of excitatory synapses and the spontaneous network activity (Sumi et al., Soft Matter 16, 3195-3202 (2019)). We found that the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents was smaller on softer scaffolds. Although globally synchronized bursting activity in cortical cultures were still observed when the cells were grown on the ultrasoft substrate, neuronal correlation was significantly reduced as compared to the cultures on stiffer (>14 kPa) substrates. In the latter half of the talk, we will show how the multielectrode array devices with the ultrasoft cell-device interface can be fabricated by taking advantage of additive manufacturing technologies, such as inkjet printing (Yamamoto et al., Adv. Biosys. 3, 1900130 (2019)). Our device employs 3D micropillar electrodes, which can be fabricated relatively easily by inkjet printing. Such devices facilitate the stimulation and recording of cultured neuronal networks grown on biomimetic scaffolds, for both basic research and pharmacological studies.
Authors : Yongdoo Choi
Affiliations : National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do Republic of Korea
Resume : My laboratory has been developing various types of activatable and dual-targeted photosensitizing agents as smart theranostics for selective near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers and inflammatory diseases. Recently a fucoidan-based theranostic nanogel (CFN-gel) consisting of a fucoidan backbone, redox-responsive cleavable linker, and photosensitizer was developed to achieve activatable near-infrared fluorescence imaging of tumor sites and an enhanced PDT to induce the complete death of cancer cells. A CFN-gel has nanomolar affinity for P-selectin and VEGF. Moreover, a CFN-gel is non-fluorescent and non-phototoxic upon its systemic administration due to the aggregation induced self-quenching in its fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation. After internalization into cancer cells and tumor neovascular endothelial cells, its photoactivity is recovered in response to the intracellular redox potential, thereby enabling selective near-infrared fluorescence imaging and an enhanced PDT of tumors. It also provides a significant antitumor effect in the absence of light treatment in vivo. Our study indicates that a fucoidan-based theranostic nanogel is a new theranostic material for imaging and treating cancer with high efficacy and specificity.
Authors : Fuyuhiko Tamanoi
Affiliations : Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Kyoto University
Resume : Our attempt to develop a new type of radiation therapy by using gadolinium-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles and synchrotron-generated monochromatic X-rays will be discussed.
Authors : Tzu-Ting Tseng; Yi-Ping Chen; Pei-Rui Zhu; Yun-Pu Chang; Chung-Yuan Mou; Si-Han Wu
Affiliations : Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan; Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Department of Chemistry, University of California Davis, California 95616, United States ; Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
Resume : Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is a promising nanocarrier for delivering anti-tumor drugs to cancer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been linked to many nanocarriers to increase the dispersity, bioavailability and circulation time of nanoparticles. However, on the other hand, PEGylation could limit the cellular uptake and endosomal escape of MSN, resulted in significant loss of activity of the delivery system. In this study, to overcome the “PEG dilemma”, we synthesized pHR-MSN-PEG/DA@EPIs, in which pH-responsive (pHR) core-shell MSNs were utilized as nanocarriers, the anti-tumor drug epirubicin (EPI) was encapsulated by electrostatic interaction, and the amine-containing (DA) functional groups were introduced to control the loading and release of EPI. In vitro studies showed that the plain pHR-MSN-PEG/DA is non-toxic and the cleavage of PEG from carriers was achieved in response to acidic environment, result in high efficiency of cellular uptake. In addition, pHR-MSN-PEG/DA@EPIs showed considerable cytotoxicity towards 4T1 tumor cells. For in vivo studies, pHR-MSN-PEG/DA showed excellent passive targeting behavior due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and strong tumor inhibition effects in a chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) tumor model.
Authors : Jau-Ye Shiu, Zhe Lin, Lina Aires, and Viola Vogel
Affiliations : China Medical University, the Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences ETH Zurich, department of health science and technology
Resume : Our ability to control cell behavior by properly engineered materials and microenvironments is tightly coupled to understanding the mechanisms of cell-matrix interactions. Anisotropy of extracellular matrix (ECM) drives cell alignment and directional migration during processes like development and wound healing, but also in cancer cell migration and invasion. So far, migrational persistence whether on flat isotropic or anisotropic surface patterns and fibers was mostly studied as local phenomenon asking how specific integrins are responsible for the recognition of the spatial ECM cues. Yet, cell alignment and directional migration in response to external ECM cues requires signal integration across length scales. By producing patterned 2 µm ECM stripes, which lead to cell alignment, and testing the previously described pan-integrin null fibroblast cells, we indeed observed that cell alignment and directional migration on patterned stripes were lost when β1 integrin was absent. By combining nanopillar arrays with printed cell-adhesive fibronectin (FN) stripes, we could probe subcellular force distributions at submicron resolution. While it was previously recognized that the αv- and β1-class integrin signaling pathways are coupled, via myosin II contractility, we discover here that myosin III coupling of these integrin signaling pathways requires a stiff cell nucleus. Importantly, directional migration along adhesive patterned stripes was also impaired for lamin A/C knockout cells, incapable of forming an actin cap and restored upon lamin A/C rescue. Together, our data suggest that β1 integrin is required for the recognition of spatial ECM cues and that force transmission to the nucleus via lamin A/C is essential for subsequent directional migration.
Authors : Hayeon Kim, Eunji Lee
Affiliations : School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea
Resume : Cryopreservation is critical factor in a fields of biochemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and food industries, when it comes to storing cells, tissues, proteins, drugs, and foods. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) have attracted huge interest with their cryopreservation activity originated from ice recrystallization inhibition or thermal hysteresis effects, which prevents organisms from freezing at the subzero environment. It is still challenging to develop new cryoprotectants mimicking natural AFPs for practical use due to the lack of understanding of structure-antifreezing activity relationship. The commercially available antifreezing agents show potential cytotoxicity to be applied for a biomedical field. Here, the self-assembled peptide nanoagents mimicking the AFPs were rationally designed by supramolecular chemistry to enhance both antifreeze activity and biocompatibility. The various nanostructures of the peptide nanoagents, changed by the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of periodically arranged antifreezing moieties, affect ice binding and resultant ice growth inhibition. Then it was confirmed that the survive rate of frozen-thawed stem and germ cells were increased after cryopreservation of peptide nanoagents and the revitalization of them were evaluated. This research could provide a useful strategy for manufacturing a cryopreservation agents with high performance through supramolecular chemistry and figuring out the mechanism of how AFPs affects cellular cryopreservation.
Authors : Dehui Wan
Affiliations : Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, National Tsing Hua University
Resume : Plasmonic metal nanostructures (e.g., Au, Ag) have proven to be a versatile platform for a broad range of optical applications. They are attractive for their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. In this talk, I will introduce our recent work on the fabrication of multi-functional nanocomposite hydrogel system composed of metal nanostructures and silk fibroin hydrogel (SFG) for novel cancer treatments. First, we developed an injectable, biodegradable SFG platform synergistic the photothermal therapy with chemotherapy against in situ breast cancer. This system can simultaneously carriage the photothermal agent, hollow gold nanocages (HGNs), and chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX). HGNs have considerably great absorption in the NIR region and efficient conversion of light to heat for photothermal therapy. DOX is one of extensively used drug for the treatment of many solid tumours, such as breast and liver cancer. This multifunctional SFG subsequently encapsulated the HGNs and DOX among the tumor region to prolong the retention time of therapeutic agents, avoiding the limit of intravenous injection and clearance of circulation. After that, we further constructed a self-sufficient hybrid enzyme system, consisting of Pt-decorated hollow Ag-Au trimetallic nanocages (HGN@Pt) and glucose oxidase (GOx), to continuously supply O2 and concurrently consume nutrients for synergistically enhancing the anti-cancer efficacy of combined starvation and photothermal therapy, especially under hypoxic tumor microenvironment. In this system, the HGN@Pt would be trapped in the SFG, which could provide constant O2 supplement and conducting repeated photothermal treatments. Also, the light-heating would benefit the catalytic activity of the HGN@Pt during the laser exposures. Moreover, the GOx would be gradually released from the SFG to tumor microenvironment for glucose depletion, leading to glucose starvation-induced cancer cell death. Noted that the O2 supplied from the HGN@Pt could efficiently lift the oxygen concentration in the microenvironment for reliving hypoxia and thus promoted the starvation therapeutic efficacy of GOx via the glucose consumption.
Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) and University of Crete, Nikolau Plastira 1000, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete+30 2810 3912 74
NASU “Physical and Chemical Material Science Centre”, Volodymyrs'ka Str. 64/13, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine+38 044 294 26 22
Dep. of Chemistry and Dep. Bio and Brain Engineering - 281, Daejeon 34141, Korea+82 42 350 2880
Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Weimarer Strasse 25, 98693 Ilmenau, Germany+49 36 77 69 3603(04)
Department of Chemical Engineering - Center Advanced Materials Research - 313 Snell Engineering Center - Boston, IMA 02115, USA+1 617 373 6585