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2021 Spring Meeting

Biomaterials and soft materials


Cellulose electronics and photonics: a new challenge for materials a new opportunity for devices III

This symposium aims to join the research community working in multifunctional cellulose-based materials posing an innovative vision for new concepts, fundamental understanding, and applications. This includes topics from fibre preparation/functionalization and multi-scale modelling to new devices and processing techniques.


Concerns about sustainability have attracted a great interest in renewable materials from nature as emerging solutions to a range of technological challenges. In particular, cellulose-based materials are not only biocompatible and earth-abundant but also have nature-provided intrinsic structures for potentially transformative impact on new recyclable electronic and photonic devices like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, bio-and medical applications, point-of-care (PoC) devices, RFID tags, disposable sensors and actuators, energy harvesting devices, among others.

To enable all these possible applications, some challenges in fundamental research and understanding must be surpassed, which include giving new functionalities to cellulose and structures with tailored properties, novel devices with both proper functionality and mechanical flexibility, cost effectiveness, scalable and reliable manufacturing techniques, and system-level integration.

This symposium aims to gather the research community working with cellulose-based materials and cover recent developments in topics that include: micro/nano fibers functionalization and assembling, new cellulose-based substrates (nanocellulose, bacterial cellulose, etc), nanocomposites with other functional materials (conductors, semiconductor, insulators, piezoelectric/triboelectric, ion-permeable), multi-functional devices and actuators, bio-mimetic/nature-inspired structures, and cost-effective manufacturing technologies on large area (printing and roll-to-roll processes).

Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:

  • Cellulose and other related biomaterials such as lignin.
  • Nanocellulose-based functional structures and self/hierarchical assembly
  • Mechanical/thermal/barrier properties and multi-scale modeling
  • Micro/nanofluidics and biosensors on cellulose and related biomaterials
  • Electronic devices such as flexible electronics,
  • Sensors and actuators
  • Plasmonics and nanophotonics,
  • Energy harverting applications such as solar cells, batteries, supercapacitors and piezo/triboelectrics
  • Other emerging applications such as smart materials, membranes and others

Invited speakers:

  • Aline Rougier (University of Bordeaux, France) “Electrochromic Labels on paper substrate :combination of materials for enhanced properties”
  • Anna Laromaine (Institut Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Spain) "Combining nanotechnology and Cellulose to build smart stimuli responsive biomaterials"
  • Babak Ziaie (Purdue University, USA) “Fabrication of low cost disposable transducers and devices on commercial hydrophobic paper via direct laser writing”
  • Bruno Frka-Petesic (University of Cambridge, UK) “Self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals into holograms"
  • Elvira Fortunato (Universidade NOVA de Lisboa) Portugal “Green electronics: a compromise for the green deal”
  • Magnus P. Jonsson (Linkoping University, Sweden) "Cellulose-based Electrochromic Displays and Metamaterials for radiative cooling"
  • Sameer Sonkusale (Tufts University, USA) “Paper and thread-based diagnostics”
  • Subir Biswas (Kyoto University, Japan) “Nanocellulose-Reinforced Transparent Substrates”
  • Wadood Hamad (FP Innovations and University of British Columbia, Canada) “Actuators and Sensors Based on Cellulose Nanocrystals“

Scientific committee:

  • Andrew Steckl (University of Cincinnati, USA)
  • Guy Eymin Petot Tourtollet (Centre Technique du Papier, France)
  • Liangbing Hu, (Maryland University, USA)
  • Maria Smolander (VTT, Finland)
  • Mats Sandberg (RISE, Sweden)
  • Orlando Rojas (Aalto University, Finland)
  • Rodrigo Martins (Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Portugal)


In parallel to the Symposium, Materials is publishing a special issue with the same title as the Symposium. Submissions to the special issue will be open until March 1st, 2022. All submissions will be subject to the quality standards and peer review process of the journal. Early view of papers will be available online as soon as they are accepted.

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Welcome and overview : Luis Pereira, Aaron Mazzeo
Authors : Maria Smolander, Katariina Torvinen, Liisa Hakola, Lisa Wikström, Kirsi Immonen, Marja Välimäki, Henrik Sandberg, Panu Lahtinen, Laura Sokka, Hannes Orelma, Tapio Mäkelä, Ari Hokkanen, Marja Vilkman
Affiliations : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Resume : The accumulation of electronic waste and the consumption of raw materials continue to increase globally. Thus, sustainable development is becoming a widely adopted strategy by several sectors including flexible electronics. The limited availability of raw materials together with the need to reduce the carbon footprint and to develop end-of-life solutions are strong drivers. In addition, new functionalities are enabled by biobased or sustainable technology. The toolbox for sustainable development in this front includes design of concepts complying with eco-design and circular economy principles, implementation of energy and materials efficient manufacturing methods and well as the use of abundant and renewable, also biodegradable materials. Application areas like medical diagnostics or intelligent packaging where single-use sensors are implemented are among the sectors benefitting from the advances in this area. In this presentation the multidisciplinary approach of VTT will be described, combining the competences from printed and hybrid manufacturing with biomaterial development. Examples of the use of renewable, biobased & biodegradable substrates and overmolding materials are presented. The use of abundant materials for electrical conductors and the exploitation of intrinsic material properties for functionality will also be discussed and the roadmap towards sustainable powering solutions will be outlined. Furthermore, environmental impact will be presented.

Authors : Elvira Fortunato
Affiliations : CENIMAT/i3N Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT-NOVA), Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Resume : We have been observing a rapid and growing interest concerning the utilization of materials of renewable origin for a wide range of applications. One of the most representative example is cellulose, not only in the form of raw material mainly for pulp and paper production, but also in the development of advanced materials/products with tailor-made properties, especially the ones based on nanostructures. Five years ago paper electronics was pure science fiction, but today we have already several paper-based electronics like integrated circuits, supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, transistors, microwave electronics, digital logic/computation, displays, user interfaces, transparent substrates, substrates with high strength, wearable devices, and new rapid diagnostic tests. These devices with their associated physics and processing will play an important and relevant role to our society special for environmental sustainability, safety, communication, health, and performance. In this talk we will discuss the state of the art and potential future directions in paper-based electronics with special emphasis to the work developed at CENIMAT|i3N, covering electronic devices, smart displays, printed electronics, sensors and rapid diagnostic tests.

Authors : Miguel Gama
Affiliations : Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

Resume : Bacterial NanoCellulose (BNC) is a nanofibrillar exopolysaccharide produced by certain acetic acid bacteria, synthesized as a 3D randomly oriented and highly hydrated nanofibrillar network. Commercial exploitation of BNC has its roots in the Philippines, from as early as 1819. After several fermentation trials under static culture, Nata de Coco cottage industry has grown to become a successful traditional fermented food business in several countries of the Pacific region. In the 1990s, several Japanese companies have collaborated to set up interdisciplinary research programs on the commercial production of microbial cellulose. However, due to the lack of efficient fermentation systems, commercial production of BNC was never achieved. Another example of the tentative large-scale production and commercialization of BNC, is the joint effort of two American companies by using a deep tank fermentation technique. With this technology, a commercial product, called CellulonTM, was aimed at different applications, including human food. By mid-nineties, NutraSweet Kelco Company purchased the microbial cellulose business and launched the BNC product as PrimaCelTM, also aimed at food applications. These products, however, never reach full commercial scale, presumably due to the high capital and production costs involved. Much effort has been devoted to designing an economical process for BNC production, by optimizing both upstream and downstream processes, including the evaluation of several culture media compositions, fermentation systems, genetic engineering and post-production modification processes. However, still the scientific literature propagates de idea that the technological production of BNC is extremely expensive. The current status of BNC production and technologies will be reviewed, with an emphasis on electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Specifically, recent advances in the utilization of BC in capacitors, secondary batteries and electrocatalysis will be discussed.

10:45 Coffee break and discussion    
Cellulose substrates and composites I : Elvira Fortunato and Maria Smolander
Authors : Bruno Frka-Petesic, Richard M. Parker, Cyan A. Williams, Silvia Vignolini
Affiliations : Melville laboratory for Polymer Synthesis, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Resume : The small security prints found on banknotes or credit cards are often referred to as “holograms” due to their particular optical properties, giving rise to specific iridescence and angular response. When the angular response varies smoothly within a specific 2D pattern, it gives rise to an illusion of depth, a feature reminiscent of those made by dedicated holographic methods. Producing such an effect by relying only on a self-assembly approach represents a challenge for both fundamental and applied points of view. In this talk, I will present how the self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), a fully bio-sourced and renewable resource, can be guided into forming patterned photonic films with illusion of depth. CNCs are anisotropic and chiral colloidal nanorods able to self-assemble spontaneously into a cholesteric phase above a critical concentration. Upon solvent evaporation, these suspensions are able to self-assemble into photonic structures,[1] and the application of a moderate magnetic field (µ0H ≈ 0.5 T) enables an angular control of the local helical direction of the domains, due to their negative diamagnetic anisotropy.[2-4] The method is simple and robust, allowing for an easy implementation of the technique and accommodates well with variations of drying conditions or presence of additives. [1] R. M. Parker, B. Frka-Petesic et al., Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, 1704477. [2] B. Frka-Petesic et al., Macromolecules 2015, 48, 8844. [3] B. Frka-Petesic et al., Adv. Mater. 2017, 29, 1701469. [4] B. Frka-Petesic et al., Phys. Rev. Materials 2019, 3, 045601.

Authors : Patrik Isacsson* (1), Xin Wang (2), Andreas Fall (3), Desalegn Mengistie (1), Emilie Calvie (4), Hjalmar Granberg (3), Göran Gustafsson (2), Magnus Berggren (1), Isak Engquist (1)
Affiliations : (1) Linköping University, Sweden; (2) RISE Digital Systems, Sweden; (3) RISE Bioeconomy, Sweden; (4) Ahlstrom-Munksjö Research Center, France; * lead presenter

Resume : The delicate interactions between cellulose and highly conducting nanocarbons, like graphene, have increasingly been exploited to develop composites with impressive electrical properties. However, since this research mainly has targeted nanoscale cellulose fibrils, these materials require significant leaps in processing technology development to achieve a justifiable production economy. In this work, a way to circumvent this obstacle is presented. By using electrotechnical pulp and mass-produced budget-graphene known as nanographite, a highly conducting yet easy-made paper has been developed for a papermaking processes. The forming mechanisms of this paper composite is believed to partly originate from an observed water-stable adhesion of nanographite flakes onto the fiber surfaces. The excellent electrical characteristics of this metal-free printable electronic paper, such as an in-plane conductivity of 107 S/cm and an areal capacitance of 9.2 mF/cm2, were successfully exploited in a printed electronics application.

Authors : Hwarueon Lee, Jinho Hyun
Affiliations : Seoul National University

Resume : Ultra-lightweight cellulose foams can be prepared by the foam forming of cellulose solution with surfactants. Foams have higher porosity and specific surface area than aerogels prepared from gel phase of cellulose solutions. However, the research is based on a cellulose solution which needs a solvent system to dissolve cellulose. Based on the simple mechanical stirring and solvent-free technique, it is critical to focus a research interest on the foam formation of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) which can be prepared in aqueous conditions. Moreover, the functionalization and the precise shape control of a foam-based printing ink will provide an extensive potential of CNFs for electronic and energy storage devices as well as biomimetic paper systems. In this investigation, polypyrrole is chosen for the functionalization of CNF foams because of its high conductivity and the mild conditions required for in situ polymer synthesis on the CNF surface. In addition, the biocompatibility of the CNF foam structures with living systems is discussed.

Authors : A. Baitenov, J. Pang, H. Chen, C. Montanari, L. Berglund, I. Zozoulenko, S. Popov
Affiliations : A. Baitenov; H. Chen; C. Montanari; L. Berglund; S. Popov - KTH, Stockholm, Sweden J. Pang; I. Zozoulenko - Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

Resume : Transparent wood (TW) is a hierarchically structured anisotropic material produced by removing lignin and introducing polymer with a refractive index matching that of cellulose constituting the wood back-bone. The resulting TW material conserves the hierarchical complexity of native wood and most of its physical and mechanical properties. The TW is a birefringent material with high optical transmission and scattering. It can be used for different applications, from translucent building blocks to peculiar research objects, such as quasi-random lasers based on the TW doped with organic dyes or other optically active compounds. One of the important tasks for research of this material is development of reliable models that can predict the light propagation in the TW, based on different parameters, such as wood species, type of introduced polymers, and sample geometry. Multiple factors, such as inherent semi-ordering and overall structural complexity create difficulties for development of generalized models, first of all using analytical solutions [1-3]. Generic light behavior inside the transparent wood can be described using, e.g. a diffusion equation, that is applicable for cases when the propagation of light can be presented as a Markov process [4]. However, for precise description of electromagnetic optical effects, i.e. related to light polarization of coherence, such models are insufficient [5]. In this work, we report the FEM model (COMSOL) of light propagation in transparent balsa wood, and validate our results against experimental data of light intensity distribution after propagating through the TW sample. The model is also applicable to calculate an effective refractive index of the cellulose. Large scale SEM images of wood structure are implemented to build the model. We also demonstrated that ray optics approach can be used for computation of the light propagation providing the same result accuracy as the rigorous electro-magnetic numerical solutions implemented in COMSOL. References [1] Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Fu, Q.; Rojas, R.; Yan, M.; Berglund, L. A. "Towards Centimeter Thick Transparent Wood through Interface Manipulation," J. Mater. Chem. A, 6, 1094–1101, Dec 2017. [2] Chen, H.; Baitenov, A.; Li, Y.; Vasileva, E.; Popov, S.; Sychugov, I.; Yan, M.; Berglund, L. A. "Thickness Dependence of Optical Transmittance of Transparent Wood: Chemical Modification Effects," ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11(38), Sep 2019. [2] Vasileva, E.; Li, Y.; Vasileva, E.; Sychugov, I.; Menshi, M.; Berglund, L. A.; Popov, S. "Lasing from Organic Dye Molecules Embedded in Transparent Wood," Advanced Optical Materials 5(10), Mar 2019.

Authors : Diana Gaspar2, Jorge Martins1, Paul Grey1, Elvira Fortunato1, Rodrigo Martins1, and Luís Pereira1&2
Affiliations : 1-CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal 2- AlmaScience, Campus de Caparica 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Resume : Giving paper new functionalities became a hot topic recently. We have been demonstrating that paper can be used not only as a substrate but also as the dielectric in devices based on semiconductor oxides, such as field effect transistors (FETs), memory transistors and CMOS like inverters. Nevertheless, many issues must still be addressed to optimize paper substrates to be used as dielectric in transistors, namely the sensitivity to variations in the relative humidity as well as its capacitance. Moreover, paper surface is rough turning into an enormous challenge the production of any electronic device on top of it. In this work we report different strategies been followed to address these challenges. Different cellulose sources (bacterial and vegetal) have been used as the basis to form paper like membranes that were then used as simultaneously as substrate and gate dielectric in a vertical transistor architecture with an amorphous IGZO as semiconductor. It was observed that the electrical performance of the devices is notoriously improved wen these cellulosic membranes are impregnated with ions from selected hydroxide solutions (LiOH, NaOH, KOH). It was shown that the infiltration procedure does not disrupt the initial structure of the membranes. The operation voltage of the transistors built on these infiltrated membranes is much lower when compared with non-infiltrated ones, being reduced from a VDS=15 V to less than 5 V, while the gate voltage narrowed for the range [-3;3] V. It was also observed that the performance of the devices is greatly improved when NaOH and KOH is used, either the field effect mobility obtained and the dynamic response of the devices for different frequencies. The ion enriched devices shown On-Off ratios that can of up to 5 orders of magnitude and saturation mobilities of close to 14 cm2 V-1 s-1. Steep subthreshold slopes of 0.2 V dec-1 were achieved in the smooth nanofibrillated cellulose membranes, supporting the existence of a good interface between the membrane and the oxide semiconductor layer.

Authors : Sozan Darabi, Michael Hummel, Sami Rantasalo, Marja Rissanen, Ingrid Öberg Månsson, Haike Hilke, Byungil Hwang, Mikael Skrifvars, Mahiar M. Hamedi, Herbert Sixta, Anja Lund, and Christian Müller
Affiliations : Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland; Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland; Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland; Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden; Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden; School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 06974 Seoul, Republic of Korea; Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden; Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden Wallenberg Wood Science Center, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden;

Resume : The emergence of “green” electronics is a response to the pressing global situation where conventional electronics contribute to resource depletion and a global build-up of waste. For wearable applications, green electronic textile (e-textile) materials present an opportunity to unobtrusively incorporate sensing, energy harvesting, and other functionality into the clothes we wear. Here, we demonstrate electrically conducting wood-based yarns produced by a roll-to-roll coating process with an ink based on the biocompatible polymer:polyelectrolyte complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The developed e-textile yarns display a, for cellulose yarns, record-high bulk conductivity of 36 Scm–1, which could be further increased to 181 Scm–1 by adding silver nanowires. The PEDOT:PSS-coated yarn could be machine washed at least five times without loss in conductivity. We demonstrate the electrochemical functionality of the yarn through incorporation into organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). Moreover, by using a household sewing machine, we have manufactured an out-of-plane thermoelectric textile device, which can produce 0.2 μW at a temperature gradient of 37 K.

12:45 Lunch break and posters    
Poster Session : Luis Pereira, Aaron Mazzeo
Authors : C. Gaspar, P. Grey, B. Coelho, M. Nasirpour, M. Pinheiro, L. Pereira, R. Martins, E. Fortunato
Affiliations : CENIMAT/I3N and UNINOVA, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516, Portugal

Resume : Inkjet printing is an additive manufacturing technique, widely used in research and upscalable to mass manufacturing. As a main advantage, for device production, does not require mechanical masks, where the pattern is produced directly in any type of substrate while printing, in a sheet-to-sheet or roll-to-roll method. Thus, it is a simpler and faster printing method for device manufacturing, allowing for pattern adjustments or corrections without increasing the production time. At the same time, being an additive manufacturing technique, it requires less ink and therefore, there is less waste, making it a more cost-efficient, environmentally friendly and versatile printing method, when compared to other printing techniques or even traditional microfabrication methods. It allows the use of different materials, such as organic or inorganic particles, in a wide viscosity range, allowing the manufacturing of a variety of devices or complex circuits, such as transistors, UV sensors, security tags, RFID antennas, among others. Biological inks are also possible to be manufactured, allowing a more accurate deposition of biological materials, for the development of biosensors or diagnostic platforms, for instance. Various substrates can be used, either rigid or flexible, with different properties, such as thickness, rugosity, porosity or surface activation. We have developed different inks, with different functionalities, in order to be deposited in various substrates, such as polymer, paper or cork substrates for printed electronics. Diverse active or passive devices have been inkjet printed, such as transistors, UV sensors, DMF chips or RFID antennas, on paper substrates. The easiness of pattern improvement together with the printing method capabilities, make inkjet printing a great tool for device manufacturing, using new materials and allowing different substrates exploration.

Authors : Guilherme Ferreira, Sumita Goswami, Suman Nandy, Luís Pereira, Rodrigo Martins, Elvira Fortunato
Affiliations : CENIMAT/I3N, DCM, FCT-UNL and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Resume : Sustainable and safe energy sources combined with cost effectiveness are major goals for society when considering the current scenario of mass production of portable and Internet of Things (IoT) devices along with the huge amount of inevitable e-waste. The conceptual design of a self-powered “eco-energy” smart card based on paper promotes green and clean energy, which will bring the zero e-waste challenge one step closer to fruition. A commercial raw filter paper is modified through a fast in situ functionalization method, resulting in a conductive cellulose fiber/polyaniline composite, which is then applied as an energy harvester based on a mechano-responsive charge transfer mechanism through a metal/conducting polymer interface. Different electrodes are studied to optimize charge transfer based on contact energy level differences. The highest power density and current density obtained from such a paper-based “eco-energy” smart card device are 1.75 W m−2 and 33.5 mA m−2 respectively. This self-powered smart energy card is also able to light up several commercial light-emitting diodes, power on electronic devices, and charge capacitors.

Authors : Chornii V.(1,2), Boyko V.(1), Alekseev O.(2), Lazarenko M.(2), Nedilko S.G.(2), Terebilenko K.(2), Teselko P.(2)
Affiliations : (1) National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; (2) Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine

Resume : High abundance of cellulose sources in nature as well as developed technology of producing of the various derivatives of cellulose determine a relatively low cost of this polymer. Other advantages of this material are eco-friendliness, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The microcrystalline cellulose can be easily incorporated with various dopants (e.g. inorganic micro/nanoparticles) due to the peculiarities of its crystal structure. Interaction between host and dopant (or filler) leads to formation of composites with useful properties. Such cellulose-based composites are attractive materials for elaboration of modern optoelectronic deviceslike flexible displays, luminescent coatings for light emitting diodes and solar cells, components of paper electronics, etc. In present study microcrystalline cellulose was used as host for zirconia micro/nanoparticles doped with europium(III) and fluorine (“cellulose+ZrO2:Eu,F”). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), luminescent and dielectric spectroscopies. Obtained samples of the composites possess interesting optical and dielectric properties those indicates interaction between host and fillers. The nanosized dopants usually incorporate into the amorphous part of cellulose that formed by microfibrils with weak internal bonding. In particular, the SEM studies have been showed that smaller nanoparticles of zirconia incorporate into cellulose plates when larger particles (above 100 nm) pierce out or located on surfaces of the plates. The effect of oxide particles on cellulose was observed on temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity of composites. The photoluminescence studies have been showed that part of absorbed excitation light energy is transferred from cellulose host to inorganic particles. The overall photoluminescence spectra of the composites studied significantly depends on the content of filler. Such composites can be used as luminescent coatings in lighting applications.

Authors : S. CARAMIZOIU(1,4), S.M. IORDACHE(2,3), A.-M. IORDACHE(2,3), V. BARNA(1,3), R. STEFAN(2), I. STAMATIN(1), C.E.A. GRIGORESCU(2)
Affiliations : (1)University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-38, 077125, Magurele, Romania (2)National Institute for Research and Development in Optoelectronics-INOE 2000, Optospintronics Department, 409 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele Romania (3)University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele, Romania (4)National Institute for R&D in Microtechnologies IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Str., Voluntari, 077190, Romania

Resume : In this paper, we describe a novel 3D printed integrating sphere as a cheap alternative to those found on the market, this being made using a FDM 3D printer with PLA filament, for multiple applications such as food safety or greenhouse crop monitoring. The image acquisition system consists of the Raspberry Pi Zero, a high-performance minicomputer running the Linux operating system for embeded systems, an circular led array of LED’s (ranging from 365 nm to 940 nm), and a PinoIR V2 camera (camera for multispectral analysis with a resolution of 8 Mpixels). The image analysis is done using the MATLAB program. Images are taken in grayscale for each wavelength and then processed with different algorithms for image cleaning, element filtering, and edge detection. In the end, the images are recombined into a single image where the contaminants present in the sample to be analyzed are highlighted. Keywords: 3D printing, MATLAB, LED, multispectral analysis, Raspberry PI Acknowledgements: 393PED/2020, 87PD/2020, 18/N/2019, 19PFE/17.10.2018

Authors : S.-M. IORDACHE(1,2), A.-M. IORDACHE(1,2), V. BARNA(3), R. STEFAN(1), S. CARAMIZOIU(2,4), C.E.A. GRIGORESCU(1)
Affiliations : 1National Institute for Research and Development in Optoelectronics-INOE 2000, Optospintronics Department, 409 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele Romania 2University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-38, 077125, Magurele, Romania 3University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele, Romania 4National Institute for R&D in Microtechnologies IMT-Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Str., Voluntari, 077190, Romania

Resume : We report the fabrication of gas sensors based on functionalized graphene with polyaniline, obtained by electrochemical polymerization of aniline on the surface of graphene. The morphological structure and properties of the sensors were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectrometry. The sensor showed good electrical-resistance response toward carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. An Arduino development board is used to monitor the temperature, humidity and CO2 level (commercial calibrated sensor). In addition to these sensors, the above-developed gas sensor based on functionalized graphene was also attached. The advantages of this sensor are high sensitivity, fast response time, short recovery time, and low power consumption. Keywords: graphene, functionalization, aniline, electrochemical polymerization, Arduino Acknowledgements: 393PED/2020, 87PD/2020, 18/N/2019, 19PFE/17.10.2018

Authors : Júlio Amando de Barros, Leandro R. Franco, André L. Sehnem, Antonio M. Figueiredo Neto, Kaline Coutinho.
Affiliations : Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Resume : Cellulose based materials are at the cutting edge of green electronic and photonic technology due to cellulose abundance and versatility. Besides batteries, supercapacitors, biosensors and others, the first ionic thermoelectric paper was recently made[1]. Based on this device, this work intends to use Molecular Dynamics in order to do a comprehensive analysis on the thermodiffusion of ions (sodium) interacting with modified cellulose fibers and compare it with the ion behavior in infinite dilution. For doing that, carboxymethyl cellulose fibers with two degrees of modification were analyzed at two ionic concentrations and in a range from 293K to 353K. For each system the sodium mean square displacement was computed, then the diffusion constant was obtained using the Einstein relation. Free energy perturbations and the Bennett Acceptance Ratio method were applied in order to evaluate the ion solvation free energy at different temperatures and therefore the Soret and Seebeck coefficients. The infinite dilution system was analyzed for several concentrations and simulation box sizes, those parameters did not affect the measured properties. The presence of cellulose fiber showed to interfere on ion behavior even from distances of ~3nm in all of the tested systems.

Authors : A. Fonseca 1 , P. Grey 1 , D. Gaspar 2 , R. Martins 1,2 , E. Fortunato 1,2 and L. Pereira 1,2
Affiliations : 1 CENIMAT/i3N Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia FCT Universidade Nova de Lisboa and CEMOP-UNINOVA Campus da Caparica, Caparica 2829-516, Portugal 2 AlmaScience Campus da Caparica, Caparica 2829-516,

Resume : The natural ability of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) to self-organize into a chiral nematic liquid crystal phase with a helical arrangement that can be retained in dry CNC films, gives iridescent colors and interesting photonic properties. These properties include selective reflection and transmission of right- and left-handed circular polarized light (RCPL and LCPL, respectively). Due to the CNC rods’ negative zeta potential, owing from their acidic hydrolysis, electrophoretic deposition presents a viable method to obtain photonic CNC films on larger areas, when compared to conventional methods. The obtained films show the characteristic iridescence, with differences above 50% between transmission in RCPL and LCPL, inside the photonic band gap. Furthermore, structures with the ability to reflect in both, LCPL and RCPL channels, were studied, by using polypropylene tape as retardation plates. With this approach a great variety of colors in LCPL and RCPL can be obtained, depending on the number of layers, and initial photonic bandgap conditions. Possible applications for these films include photonics, anti-counterfeiting, stereoscopic imaging, sensing and in the realm of information processing.

Cellulose substrates and composites II : Miguel Gama and Bruno Frka-Petesic
Authors : Antonio Facchetti
Affiliations : Northwestern U. and Flexterra Corp.

Resume : Photolithographic defined films play an important role in modern optoelectronics and are crucial for the development of advanced organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Here, we explore a facile photoresist-free photopatterning method for natural carbohydrates and their use as OTFT gate dielectrics. The effect of the cross-linkable unit chemical structure on the crosslinking chemistry and dielectric strength of the corresponding films was explored by investigating cinnamate-functionalized carbohydrates from monomeric (glucose) to dimeric (sucrose) to polymeric (cellulose) backbones. UV-illumination of cinnamate ester of these carbohydrates leads to [2 2] cycloaddition and thus the formation of robust crosslinked dielectric films in the irradiated areas. Using propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate as solvent/developer, patterned dielectric films with micrometer size features can be fabricated. P- and N-type OTFTs were successfully demonstrated using unpatterned/patterned crosslinked films as the gate dielectric and pentacene and N,N’-1H, 1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN2) as the p- and n-channel semiconducting layer, respectively. Our results demonstrate that natural-derived polymer gate dielectrics, which are soluble and patternable using bio-mass derived solvents, are crucial for the realization of a more sustainable OTFT technology

Authors : Serhii G. Nedilko
Affiliations : Physics Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Kyiv, Ukraine

Resume : There are many examples of development of devices, which use materials elaborated on the base of cellulose. Those are sensors, drives, flexible electronics components, etc. However, cellulose and derived materials are not often used or studied as optical systems or systems where optical phenomena can be inquired. The development of solar radiation dosimeters consisting of an organic dye and titanium oxide as a photocatalyst printed on the cellulose substrate is one of the examples. Cellulose fibers containing specific luminescent compounds as markers and simultaneously as effective modifiers for textile products, papers and plastic is other example. The aim of this work was to develop micro/nanostructured composites based on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as matrix and oxide compound as filler. The essential advantage of oxide fillers is their stability. In this work we described the procedure of synthesis, manufacturing, structural and optical (luminescent) characteristics of the MCC – oxide composites made by cold pressing method. Simple oxides (ZnO, ZrO2) as well as complex oxides (BiPO4:Eu; K2Eu(PO4)(MoO4)) were incorporated into MCC matrix. Some carbon species (CNT, graphen, expanded graphite) were added to the composites as modifiers. Characteristics of these composites were compared to characteristics of similar compositions prepared on the base of nanocellulose. The morphological, structural and optical, especially luminescence, characteristics were studied that confirmed the perspectives of practical application of the composites under study. The correlation between structural, morphological characteristics and physical properties of composites was found and discussed. Obtained results confirmed the perspectives of practical use of the composites under study.

Authors : Fall, A.B.*(1), Farahani, F.(1), Gimåker, M.(1), Edberg, J.(1), Malti, S.(2), Larsson, P.A.(2), Wågberg, L.(2), Granberg, H.(1) & Håkansson, K.M.O.(1)
Affiliations : (1)RISE, Sweden; (2)KTH Fibre and polymer technology, Sweden

Resume : Our society is becoming more digitalized with a concomitant increasing demand for sustainable production of energy and materials. Filaments and fibers are important building blocks for many materials we see around us, such as textiles and non-wovens; found in clothes, packaging, diapers and composites. However, to be able to prepare the future interactive textiles, packaging materials and hygiene products it is necessary to expand the toolbox of electrically active filaments, while keeping sustainability in mind. Here we describe a new water-based colloidal process where cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are spun into interactive filaments. As long as the colloidal suspension has appropriate stability active materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene or conducting polymers can be mixed with the CNF. In this work conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer complexes were mixed with CNFs, to prepare filaments containing up to 40% conducting material. The electrical conductivity is controlled by the amount of incorporated PEDOT:PSS, up to 170 S/cm was achieved, still providing high mechanical properties from the CNFs; 19 GPa in modulus and 360 MPa in tensile strength. These filaments are highly interesting in materials where conductivity and mechanical performance are of importance. The number of such applications are vast (e.g. smart textiles, composites, as components in electrical devices), making this development an important step towards a green, digitalized future.

Authors : Ramendra K Pal, Tongfen Liang, Ali Ashraf, Thomas McGovern, Samantha Moy, Mehdi Javanmard, Aaron D. Mazzeo
Affiliations : Ramendra K Pal: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Tongfen Liang: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Ali Ashraf: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Thomas McGovern: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Samantha Moy: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Aaron Mazzeo: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Mehdi Javanmard: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rutgers University, 94 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854

Resume : This work presents the development of electrochemical biosensors for monitoring analytes in sweat using a nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) paper. We incorporated electroactivity by adding poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in the NFC paper. This electroactive paper follows an electronics-in-paper approach where the intrinsic nano-porous morphology enhances the electroactivity of the biosensors. Classification of electrochemical biosensors is according to the analytes or reactions they monitor: 1) direct monitoring of analytes or biological activity, and 2) indirect monitoring of inhibitors.[1] Direct monitoring involves detecting biomolecules that can either undergo redox changes within the electrochemical window or catalyze by an enzyme to produce electrical signals. Indirect monitoring uses the inhibition property of biomolecules to inhibit the electroactivity of a biosensor. Tracking the inhibition of electroactivity allows indirect monitoring of biomolecules. Human sweat contains many analytes such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, and cortisol. Analytes present in sweat exhibit a strong correlation with blood; thus, detecting these analytes can inform the physiological deviations from homeostasis.[2] Dopamine and ascorbic acid can oxidize within the electrochemical window, while lactate oxidase can catalyze lactic acid within the electrochemical window. Cortisol can bind to its antibody to form an antibody-antigen complex, which an electrochemical sensor can detect by its reduced electroactivity. This presentation will show sensitive detection of dopamine, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, and cortisol through direct and indirect electrochemical sensing approaches to demonstrate the broad biosensing capability of electronics-in-paper. The study will further encourage the scientific community to investigate on nano-porous effects of paper-based substrates. References [1] D. R. Thévenot, K. Toth, R. A. Durst, G. S. Wilson, Biosens. Bioelectron. 2001, 16, 121. [2] A. Hauke, P. Simmers, Y. R. Ojha, B. D. Cameron, R. Ballweg, T. Zhang, N. Twine, M. Brothers, E. Gomez, J. Heikenfeld, Lab. Chip 2018, 18, 3750.

Authors : Dagmawi Belaineh1, Tiffany Abitbol2, Yusuf Mulla1, Karl Håkansson2, Valerio Beni1, Mats Sandberg1
Affiliations : 1. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division Digital Systems, Bredgatan 33, 60221 Norrköping, Sweden; 2. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division Bioeconomy and Health, Drottning Kristinas Väg 61, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden

Resume : Cellulosic products are sustainable solutions for a range of electronic applications owing to their inherent biocompatibility and molecular structure. One of their common uses is in the field of high-voltage insulation in various machines such transformers. Despite the common use of cellulose in high-field applications there are no quick and simple methods to test the electronic properties of different cellulosic materials in high voltages. This is due to the bulky nature of the test materials that necessitates the application of considerably high voltages (>200 V) for the investigations. In this study, we prepare thin films of cellulose that allow the investigation of the properties of cellulose, such as remnant polarization in cellulose i.e. ferro/piezo-electricity, and breakdown electric fields, using low voltage equipment. We resolve the limited presence of pin-holes in the cellulose films by forming a thin film of high-dielectric interlayer material. We show that it is possible to investigate the effect of high electric fields on cellulosic materials with simple lab equipment and applying low voltages (< 20 V). Using this technique, we study the dependence of the high-filed properties on cellulosic charge and the presence of various counter ions. Furthermore, we are able to investigate the role of humidity and the effect of using higher boiling point solvents in precursor cellulosic solutions.

15:30 Coffee break and discussion    
Printing and laser processing : Sameer Sonkusale and Wadood Hamad
Authors : A. Rougier1; R. Futsch1,2; I. Mjejri1
Affiliations : 1) CNRS, Univ. Bx, Bx INP, ICMCB, UMR 5026, F-33600 Pessac, France 2) Luquet-Duranton, 07100 Annonay, France

Resume : Electrochromism is known as a modulation of the optical properties under an applied voltage. Used in various applications, aside to the commercialized smart windows based on transmissive electrochromic devices (ECDs), the opaque systems have received significant interest for displays purposes. More precisely, we recently demonstrated activation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene) PEDOT based ECD thanks to a cellular phone for use in anticounterfeit labels [1]. PEDOT based devices offer a color change from colorless or light blue depending on film thickness to dark blue. Herein, in a novel approach to increase the performance including color tuning, switching time, memory effect, processability, of EC devices, hybrid layers consisting of mixtures of PEDOT-based polymers and oxides, either EC active or inactive [2], are investigated. The integration of the hybrid layer in full EC devices based on paper will be discussed in respect of the choice of the paper substrate, the oxide-PEDOT mixture nature and composition, the printing process, the device architecture…. This activity included in the SUPERSMART project has received funding from the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). This body of the European Union receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. [1] A. Danine et al., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 11(37), 34030, 2019. [2] D. Levasseur et al., Polymers, 11(1), 179, 2019.

Authors : Babak Ziaie
Affiliations : Purdue University

Resume : In this presentation, we outline our work in the area of using direct laser writing to fabricate paper-based devices. This technique allows for rapid fabrication and prototyping of sensors, actuators, and electronics on commercial hydrophobic papers without the need for photolithography and etching processes.

Authors : Maxime Wawrzyniak 1 2 , Aurore Denneulin 2, Tân-Phu Vuong 1, Julien Bras 2 3
Affiliations : 1 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, GRENOBLE INP, IMEP-LAHC, 38000 GRENOBLE, France ; 2 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LGP2, F-38000 Grenoble, France ; 3 IUF, 75000 Paris, France ;

Resume : Since the last decade, the development of Internet of Things (IoT) is exponential. It is estimated that the number of connected objects will be more than 22 billion in 2025. An application for IoT concerns the development of smart and connected packaging to ensure the conditions of the goods and to track them. Radio-frequency transparent devices can be considered as a relevant solution to answer this challenge. We propose here a solution to produce printed transparent antennas by using screen-printing process. Two key major aspects will be deeply discussed: (i) A cellulosic paper will be selected as substrate to decrease the carbon footprint of the device and to create flexible antennas. (ii) The second point will be dedicated to the design of the antenna itself. To be efficient and adapted, an antenna requires a high electrical conductivity of its pattern (< 1Ω.sq-1). The use of a conductive ink with a high solid content of silver particles enables to reach the targeted level of electrical conductivity at the expense of the optical transparency. To counterbalance this lack of transparency, this paper proposes several models of antennas including geometrical meshes based on square, honeycomb or diamond structures and thin lines (100 µm of width). With this method, the resulted printed antennas present an optical transparency of approximately 70% and their realized gain were preserved with a loss limited to approximately 0.35% in comparison with a conventional dipole.

Authors : Christopher Dreimol, Dr. Guido Panzarasa, Prof. Dr. Ingo Burgert
Affiliations : Wood Materials Science, Institute for Building Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland. WoodTec Group, Cellulose & Wood Materials, EMPA, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland (please use both affiliations for all authors)

Resume : Electronic waste (E-waste) is a huge concern all over the world, as one of the fastest growing waste streams in terms of both volume and environmental impact. Direct writing of laser-induced graphene (LIG) conductive patterns on biological substrates, and especially on wood, is a promising strategy to promote the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable electronics. However, the large-scale manufacturing of high quality conductive patterns remains challenging due to the complex nature of the surface of wood (inhomogeneous structure with variable chemical composition). Moreover, factors such as high ablation rates, the need of multiple lasing steps and the use of fire retardants are also limiting the applicability of conventional laser processes for the production of sustainable electronic devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel route for direct laser writing of LIG on wood and wood-derived materials (e.g. wood, paper). Our approach, which combines a fast CO2-laser treatment in normal atmosphere with a simple chemical pre-treatment of wood, allows obtaining highly conductive surfaces on both wood and wood-derived materials with unprecedented efficiency at large scale.

Authors : Jesper Edberg 1, Robert Brooke 1, Omid Hosseinaei 2, Andreas Fall 2, Kosala Wijeratne 1, Mats Sandberg 1
Affiliations : 1 RISE Bio- and Organic Electronics, Bredgatan 33, 602 21, Norrköping, Sweden; 2 RISE Bioeconomy, Drottning Kristinas väg 61, 114 28, Stockholm, Sweden

Resume : Laser induced graphene/graphite (LIG) is a method of converting a carbon rich precursor into highly conductive graphene using a laser. This method has shown great promise as a versatile and low-cost patterning technique. Here we show for the first time how an ink based on cellulose and lignin can be patterned using screen printing followed by laser graphitization. Screen printing is one of the most commonly used manufacturing techniques in printed electronics, making this approach compatible with existing processing of various devices. The use of forest-based materials opens the possibility of producing green and sustainable electronics and pre-patterning of the ink precursor enables carbon patterns without residual precursor between the patterns. We investigated the effect of the ink composition, laser parameters and additives on the conductivity and structure of the resulting carbon and could achieve record low sheet resistance of 3.8 Ohm/sq and a surprisingly high degree of graphitization. We demonstrated that the process is compatible with printed electronics and finally manufactured a humidity sensor which uses lignin as the sensing layer and graphitized lignin as the electrodes.

17:30 Coffee break and discussion    
Sensors and actuators I : Ziaie Babak and Antonio Facchetti
Authors : Sameer Sonkusale
Affiliations : Tufts University

Resume : This talk will explore the new realm of using threads as an ultimate platform for flexible and stretchable devices. Threads offer unique advantages of universal availability, low cost, material diversity and simple textile-based processing. In this talk, I will report reel-to-reel fabrication to make functional smart threads for variety of sensing and electronics application. For example I will report on nanomaterial-infused smart threads for strain and temperature sensing. Threads will be presented for sensing pH, glucose, and other chemical biomarkers. Interestingly, threads also provide an ideal platform for passive microfluidic sampling and delivery of analytes. I will show our recent work on using this toolkit of thread-based microfluidics, sensors and electronics for application as surgical sutures and flexible smart bandages for chronic wounds. Our recent work on using threads for closed loop spatiotemporal dosage controlled drug delivery will also be presented. I will conclude the talk by providing an outlook on future research directions in the field of textile-based flexible bioelectronics.

Authors : Wadood Y. Hamad
Affiliations : FPInnovations and University of British Columbia

Resume : Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are lyotropic colloidal liquid crystals (LCs). They can easily be obtained from wood and other biomass, and typically have dimensions of 5-10 nm × 100-500 nm. When prepared with sulfuric acid, the CNCs are modified with sulfate half-ester groups that impart a surface charge and enable them to form stable colloidal suspensions in water. Owing to the large aspect ratio and inherent chirality of the CNCs, they can spontaneously form left-handed chiral nematic LC structures at low concentrations (~4 wt.%). Chiral nematic liquid crystals (CNLCs), also known as cholesteric LCs, are important for displays and other applications owing to their periodic helical structures. Responsive photonic crystals have potential applications in mechanical sensors and soft displays; however, new materials are constantly desired to provide new innovations and improve on existing technologies. To address this, we have developed a suite of scientific solutions based on the actuating and piezoelectric responses of CNCs and stretchable CNC-polymer nanocomposite systems. For instance, stretchable chiral nematic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) elastomer composites can be prepared to exhibit reversible visible colour upon the application of mechanical stress. When stretched (or compressed) the colourless materials maintain their chiral nematic structure but the helical pitch is reduced into the visible region, resulting in coloration of the CNC-elastomer composite. By increasing the percentage elongation of the material (ca. 50–300%), the structural colour can be tuned from red to blue. Moreover, CNC-polymer nanocomposite films can be prepared in a straightforward manner to produce cost-effective stretchable piezoelectric materials (d33>50 pC/N) that outperform PVDF and some ceramics. We have meticulously documented the structure-property interrelations influencing these responses, and have examined concentration, pH, ionic strength, and electromagnetic field effects. Our presentation will detail these fundamental criteria and how they influence performance and functionality in select end-use application platforms.

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Electric and Electrochemical devices : Aline Rougier and Anna Laromaine Sague
Authors : Magnus P. Jonsson
Affiliations : 1. Organic Photonics and Nanooptics group, Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden 2. Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden

Resume : Cellulose is a sustainable organic material that gives rise to a multitude of interesting opportunities in photonics, not least when combined with other functional materials. In this presentation, I will focus on our recent work on cellulose-based electrochromics for display applications [1] and on a new type of nanocellulose metamaterial enabling radiative cooling with controllable visible haze [2]. References: 1. Greyscale and paper electrochromic polymer displays by UV patterning Robert Brooke, Jesper Edberg, Xavier Crispin, Magnus Berggren, Isak Engquist and Magnus P. Jonsson Polymers 2019, 11, 267 2. Transparent nanocellulose metamaterial enables controlled optical diffusion and radiative cooling Sampath Gamage, Evan S.H. Kang, Christina Åkerlind, Samim Sardar, Jesper Edberg, Hans Kariis, Thomas Ederth, Magnus Berggren and Magnus P. Jonsson Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2020, 8, 11687-11694

Authors : Isak Engquist(1)*, Jesper Edberg(2), Robert Brooke(2), Mehmet Girayhan Say(1), Negar Sani(2), Dagmawi Belaineh(2), Göran Gustafsson(1), Magnus Berggren(1).
Affiliations : (1)Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Linköping University, Sweden; (2)RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Resume : Energy storage in supercapacitors based on organic electroactive materials in a cellulose-based scaffold is an emerging green alternative to todays rechargeable batteries. However, to achieve devices that are manufacturable in large volumes, several scientific and technological challenges need to be addressed. PEDOT is a well-known organic conductor providing 1D charge transport along the chain. We show how it organizes as a 2D cladding around cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), and how this assembly can be printed, cast, or spray-coated into 3D supercapacitor electrodes. Further, we show that pulp cellulose can replace the CNF, with maintained high specific capacitance (90 F/g) and good cyclability (>10 000 cycles). The cellulose component allows for printing of multiple electrode layers while preserving mechanical stability and robustness. Demonstrator supercapacitor stacks on paper substrate have been fabricated that are charged with 9 V and store above 50 J of energy. Charge storage capacity can be further increased by blending optimized amounts of carbon black and activated carbon into the ink formulation. For maximum power density, spraycoated electrodes have been investigated. This method improves contact between the current collector and the supercapacitor electrode, resulting in very low device series resistance (0.2 Ω).

Authors : Ramendra K. Pal, Qingyang Wang, Deepti Salvi, Aaron Mazzeo
Affiliations : Ramendra K. Pal: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Aaron Mazzeo: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Deepti Salvi: Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; Qingyang Wang: Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Resume : Cold plasma consists of a mix of ions, reactive species, electromagnetic fields, ultra-violet radiation, and modest heat. Cold plasma inactivates pathogens while retaining the appearance, taste, and nutritional values of fresh fruits and vegetables.[1] This work reports two designs of metallized paper-based cold plasma-generating (CPG) electrodes and their effectiveness in inactivating food-pathogens. The first is a circular and flexible configuration that may fit in an existing pouch or package, and the second is a two-cone configuration that may conform to a spherical fresh fruit or vegetable. The conformation of electrodes over spherical fresh fruit or vegetable reduces the volume of air entrapped inside, concentrating the reactive species. The circular electrodes produced 141 μg of ozone, and two-cone electrodes produced 675 μg of ozone within 2.5 minutes of activation. The optical emission spectroscopy indicated the presence of both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). The rise of air temperature for 10 minutes was 4 °C using the circular and 6 °C using the two-cone electrodes. We investigated the inactivation efficacy of CPG electrodes on gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive L. innocua inoculated on TSA plates. We obtained around a 5-log reduction in loads of both bacteria within 10 minutes of exposure to plasma. The application of paper-based material, antimicrobial efficacy, and low thermal impact make these CPG electrodes relevant to the active packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables. Reference [1] B. A. Niemira, Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 2012, 3, 125.

Authors : Aiman Rahmanudin; Klas Tybrandt
Affiliations : Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology Linköping University, 601 74, Norrköping, Sweden

Resume : The next-generation soft and stretchable electronics promise to deliver applications ranging from smart electronic skin, bio-integrated medical diagnostics, to disposable electronic tags for environmental, food and health monitoring. However, to realise self-powered devices, there is a need to develop an integrated energy-storage component (i.e. a battery or supercapacitor) that not only provides power continuously and wirelessly, but also retains delivery during repeated mechanical twisting, folding and stretching. This is currently lacking and remains a separate yet critical challenge. Moreover, the use, and associated safety and toxicity of current Li-ion batteries is detrimental to the environment and complicates end-of-life disposal, posing sustainability issues to its overall cradle-to-grave life cycle, and unsafe for on-skin or bio-integrated applications. To address these challenges, we present a strategy to engineer an energy storage device where all key components – (1) current collector, (2) redox-active electrode and (3) a separator membrane are stretchable and based on aqueous battery chemistries using mostly sustainable biomass derived materials such as nano-cellulose and redox-active biomolecules. Here, new material designs will be highlighted: (1) the processing of a current collector bilayer containing a composite of nano-graphite and a polymeric elastomer with a thin layer of silver nanowires; (2) the construction of a highly porous conductive polymer scaffold using nano-cellulose and a conducting polymer commonly coded as PEDOT:PSS, containing a high loading of redox-active biomolecule (e.g. wood-derived lignosulfonate and a plant-derived molecule Alizarin Red S) within the pores; (3) an elastic nano-cellulose based ion-selective separator membrane. All of these components were fabricated into a device that functions as a hybrid between an ordinary battery and a redox flow battery without an active flow of the electrolyte, but is diffusion driven via the transport of the redox-active molecules. The overall design concept will be a viable guideline for a greener and high-performance stretchable energy storage device that would substantiate its general applicability as a power source for a variety of devices that could lead to further advancements in next-generation electronics.

Authors : Xavier Aeby, Alexandre Poulin, Gilberto Siqueira, Gustav Nyström
Affiliations : EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Switzerland; EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Switzerland; EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Switzerland; EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Switzerland and ETH – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland

Resume : We report a fully printed (Direct-ink-Writing) nanocellulose-based supercapacitor with a specific capacitance of 25 F/g, a state-of-the-art performance for fully printed supercapacitors. With the exponentially growing number of sensors and connected-objects brought by the Internet-of-things era, the development of recyclable materials and sustainable manufacturing techniques is of crucial importance. The supercapacitor we present here is exclusively composed of biosourced materials and carbon. In particular, we use nanocellulose as a rheology modifier, structural material and binder in the development of several functional inks. The device is printed as two half-cells that are then folded together to form a 1 mm thick and 2.25 cm2 working device. Each half-cell is composed of four different layers: substrate, current collector, electrode and electrolyte. A substrate of plasticized cellulose is first printed, resulting in a low-surface roughness (2.5 micrometer RMS) and flexible substrate. A metal-free current-collector is printed on top of the substrate, exhibiting an electrical conductivity of 200 S/m and a surface resistance of 20 Ohm/□. An hygroscopic cellulose-carbon electrode and a glycerol-NaCl electrolyte are subsequently printed on top of the current collectors. The materials and fabrication processes presented in this work advance the field of printed electronics and could be used for the fabrication of other passive and active components, from simple wiring to eco-friendly sensors.

10:45 Coffee break and discussion    
Sensors and actuators II : Bruno Frka-Petesic and Magnus Jonsson
Authors : Soledad Roig, Irene Anton, Anna Roig, Anna Laromaine*
Affiliations : Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Group( Institut Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

Resume : The need to provide eco-friendly materials to reduce costs and risks associated to waste echoes in many fields as the European Commission strengthens the substitution of plastics and petroleum-based materials. In this context, raw materials of natural origin and in particular natural biopolymers like cellulose play an important role. Cellulose (C) and nanocellulose (NC)-based materials have emerged as interesting candidates to industries, governments and consumers as green, sustainable and natural materials for the fabrication of advanced complex composites. Additionally nanoparticles (NPs) offer the possibility to chemically and structurally tune their properties influencing how they interact with different materials. Hundreds of NPs have been proposed in a diverse fields, however the lack of a time- and batch-efficient method to evaluate NPs and processes prevents establishing general fundamental principles and impedes their progress, in specific as future drugs and therapies unless high throughput methods advance. The possibility to combine materials of raw origin, like cellulose, with nanoparticles open new avenues in the development of novel materials, which harness nanotechnology and nature. In this context, we will present our latest development on novel stimuli responsive materials for a variety of applications based on bacterial cellulose, we will show a strategy to create multifunctional bacterial cellulose laminate material with topographic confinement of several types of nanoparticles using microwave-assisted synthesis routes and taking advantage of the self-adhesion of the BC fibers upon drying. This approach allowed us to create new functional materials on demand. References Zeng, M.; Laromaine, A.; Roig, A. Bacterial Cellulose Films: Influence of Bacterial Strain and Drying Route on Film Properties. Cellulose 2014, 21 (6), 4455–4469. Abol-Fotouh, D.; Dörling, B.; Zapata-Arteaga, O.; Rodríguez-Martínez, X.; Gómez, A.; Reparaz, J. S.; Laromaine, A.; Roig, A.; Campoy-Quiles, M. Farming Thermoelectric Paper. Energy Environ. Sci. 2019, 12 (2), 716–726. Anton-Sales, I.; Beekmann, U.; Laromaine, A.; Roig, A.; Kralisch, D. Opportunities of Bacterial Cellulose to Treat Epithelial Tissues. Curr. Drug Targets 2018, 20 (8), 808–822. Zeng, M.; Laromaine, A.; Feng, W.; Levkin, P. A.; Roig, A. Origami Magnetic Cellulose: Controlled Magnetic Fraction and Patterning of Flexible Bacterial Cellulose. J. Mater. Chem. C 2014, 2, 6312–6318. Roig-Sanchez, S.; Jungstedt, E.; Anton-Sales, I.; Malaspina, D. C.; Faraudo, J.; Berglund, L. A.; Laromaine, A.; Roig, A. Nanocellulose Films with Multiple Functional Nanoparticles in Confined Spatial Distribution. Nanoscale Horizons 2019, 4, 634–341.

Authors : Milad Asadi Miankafshe1, Shayan Mehraeen2, Claude Huniade1, Jose G. Martinez2, Tariq Bashir1,3, Edwin W. H.Jager2, Nils-Krister Persson1
Affiliations : 1 Swedish School of Textiles, Smart Textiles, Polymeric E-textiles, University of Borås, S-501 90 Borås, Sweden 2 Bionics and Transduction Science, Div. Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping, Sweden 2 Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, S-501 90 Borås, Sweden

Resume : Developing a cellulosic fiber-based actuator opens up new fields of cellulosic materials with added value and new types of wearable applications. Cellulosic fibers offer biodegradability and sustainability as well as low production costs. In addition, cellulosic textiles have advantages such as conformability and compatibility with the human body. Textiles can be transformed into actuators, where the textile construction enables guidance of the actuation direction and amplification of both stress and strain. We have selected a regenerated cellulosic fiber (Lyocell) as the main substrate. Lyocell yarns were coated with PEDOT:PSS by a novel dip-coating method to provide electrical conductivity for the yarn. The PEDOT:PSS suspension was optimized with D-sorbitol, a wetting agent (SOLSPERS 27000), and a non-ionic polyurethane-based thickener (PERMAX 232). Optimization of the suspension contributed to conductivity enhancement and reduction of the electrical voltage drops during redox reactions. We developed a custom coating system, where yarns were continuously and evenly coated with a homogeneous layer of PEDOT:PSS and collected on bobbins. These standard bobbins could be used in advanced knitting and weaving machines for continuous and mass production of complex wearable devices. Coated Yarns were treated with a lubricant (PERIXEN 144) which makes them more flexible and durable during the knitting process. It showed to increase the conductivity of the coated yarns. These yarns then were fed to a programmed automatic industrial flat knitting machine, where the textile actuator with both passive (Lyocell) and active (PEDOT:PSS-Lyocell) segments was produced. Later, polypyrrole (PPy) was electropolymerized on the conducting segments. In this work, the impact of optimization of the PEDOT:PSS suspension as well as the role of textile structures on textile actuation mechanism, and obtained strain and stress were investigated. This production line, gives us a highly stable conductive electrode and actuator coating, opening up an industrially relevant process of knitting and weaving wearable textile actuators

Authors : A. C. Marques1,3,4*, N. Ferreira1, B. Veigas1,2, A. Araújo1, H. Águas1, R. Martins1, B. Costa-Silva3, M. G. Sales4,5, E. Fortunato1* *corresponding authors: (ACM); (EF)
Affiliations : 1i3N|CENIMAT, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal; 2UCIBIO, Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal; 3Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, 1400-038 Lisbon, Portugal; 4BioMark@UC, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Coimbra University, 3030-790, Coimbra, Portugal; 5CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

Resume : Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has emerged as a highly sensitive and expedite analytical technique with wide application regimes, from biological analysis to environmental monitoring. At the most basic level, SERS is a route to significantly amplify the signal from the weak yet structurally rich technique of Raman spectroscopy. A SERS-active substrate is generally based on a platform coated with a roughened or nanostructured metallic surface that enhances the Raman signal due to their Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). However, the commercially available SERS-active substrates are expensive and have a reduced shelf-life increasing the overall cost of SERS analysis. Since SERS effectiveness is highly dependent on nanostructure nature, morphology and distribution, several fabrications approaches have been tested in a multitude of substrates. From physical deposition to wet chemical processes, due to the advances in nanotechnology and nanofabrication techniques, the produced nanostructures can be precisely controlled resulting in efficient Raman enhancement homogeneity. Different materials have been used as SERS substrates, from the conventional glass, silicon wafers, and interestingly cellulose-based substrates. The application of Raman enhancement layers to cellulose offers to SERS platforms relevant characteristics, such as low-cost, versatility, tunability and recyclability. Herein, we present strategies based on physical and solution-based routes for the fabrication of cellulose-based SERS substrates and its applicability: (i) cardboard substrate with in-situ deposited silver nanoparticles, through thermal evaporation, for the screening of antibiotics residues in milk [1]; (ii) bacterial nanocellulose substrate, obtained from nata de coco, with in-situ grown plasmonic nanoparticles by an innovative microwave-assisted method. The microwave irradiation allowed a homogeneous heating of the reaction mixture, which led to a well-controlled growth of plasmonic nanoparticles directly onto the nanocellulose substrate, with a fast and energy efficiency synthesis approach. Due to the fascinating properties of nanocellulose, such as high mechanical strength and high surface area, this substrate was able to withstand the microwave-synthesis process without deterioration and to enable the growth of highly packed nanoparticles increasing the number of SERS hot-spots. These membranes were successfully used for the discrimination of extracellular vesicles, coming from MDA MB 231 (breast cancer) and MCF-10A (non-tumorigenic breast epithelium) cell cultures lineages, by a statistical Principal Component Analysis (PCA), with a data grouping of 95% confidence. We believe that this approach can be a valuable tool for simple, non-invasive, label-free and easy-to perform cancer diagnosis. Moreover, we consider that it can provide precious information on both the prognosis of the disease and the predictive outcome of a given therapy [2]. [1] A. Marques, et al, Scientific Reports, 9, 17922, 2019 [2] N. Ferreira, et al, ACS Sensors, 4, 2073-2083, 2019

Authors : Marina Galliani*, Laura Ferrari, Esma Ismailova
Affiliations : Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, 13541 Gardanne (France) INRIA, Université Côte d'Azur, 06902, Sophia Antipolis, (France)

Resume : Tattoo-like electrodes are the most recent development in the field of cutaneous sensors. They have successfully demonstrated their performances in the monitoring of various bio-signals from the skin. Tattoo electrodes have been largely used to record electrophysiological signals, to perform sweat biochemical analysis and to monitor skin hydration level. Such electrodes can be made of only organic materials, which are highly suitable for bioelectronic applications where materials softness and plasticity are the key parameters to better interface with the epidermis. Conducting polymer tattoos are dry skin-contact sensors based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), deposited by spin-coating or inkjet printing, on top of a commercial temporary tattoo paper processed from the ethyl cellulose (EC). At the sub-?m thickness, the cellulose layer is capable to conformably adhere to the skin creating an imperceptible contact between the human body and the electronics. Our work presents a comprehensive study where we characterize materials properties in response to the PEDOT:PSS/EC electrode-skin interface. We evaluate how materials processing can affect the electrodes? performance with respect to the possible perspiration through cutaneous bio-impedance measurements and advanced signal processing. These evaluations provides valuable input in designing ultra-thin electronic sensors for multimodal long-term human monitoring.

Authors : Paul Grey, Manuel Chapa, Miguel Alexandre, Tiago Mateus, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins, Manuel J. Mendes, and Luís Pereira
Affiliations : P. Grey; M. Alexandre; T. Mateus; E. Fortunato; R. Martins; M. J. Mendes: CENIMAT/i3N Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia FCT Universidade Nova de Lisboa and CEMOP-UNINOVA Campus da Caparica, Caparica 2829-516, Portugal E-mail: L. Pereira: AlmaScience Campus da Caparica, Caparica 2829-516, Portugal M. Chapa: UGent-imec, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Ghent, Belgium

Resume : The study shows the incorporation of chiral nematic photonic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films, well known for their adaptive character of selective reflection of circular polarized light (CPL), and silicon-based thin-film photodiodes, thus achieving a light sensor capable of discriminating right- from left-handed CPL. The CP response is maximum for specific wavelengths in the green-to-red region. When subjected to these wavelengths, they produce photocurrents that are over 50% distinct between the two CP states. Proper signal processing, thus, yields a binary output depending on the handedness of the light. Through the addition of monovalent salt to the initial CNC suspension, a blueshift to the photonic band gap is induced, enabling a larger wavelength gamut and application possibilities. The measured results are then used as a basis for electromagnetic simulations that show remarkable consistency with the experimental results, thus defining a new tool that can be used to efficiently optimize the devices’ response. Fast transient responses to CPL are shown with possible logic operations, as well as humidity sensing. The developed devices are, thus, applicable in areas as diverse as imaging, CPL sensing, optoelectronic counterfeiting, and information processing with logic states that depend solely on the handedness of the incident light.

Authors : Tongfen Liang, Xiyue Zou, Ramendra Pal, Jiaqi Liu, Maame Assasie-Gyimah, Weijian Guo, Chuyang Cen, Jingjin Xie, Max Tenorio, Daniel Sullivan, Anna Root, Paul Stansel, Anne McKeown, George Weng, William Sampson, Assimina Pelegri, Aaron Mazzeo
Affiliations : Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; Rutgers; MPS Systems; Rutgers; Rutgers; The University of Manchester; Rutgers; Rutgers

Resume : This talk/poster will initially describe “electronics on paper,” which include examples of touch sensors and plasma-based sanitizers. The skin-like touch sensors use patterned resistive networks for passive, scalable sensing with a reduced number of interconnects. When touched or wetted with water, the sensors in the resistive networks detect significant changes in electrical impedance. The plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced plasmas capable of killing greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and greater than 99% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. To move toward functionalized substrates, the final portion of the talk will illustrate our efforts to form fibrous sheets with tunable electrical properties to create “electronics in paper.” These materials produced with modified techniques in a hand sheet former represent our efforts to leverage papermaking techniques to tune the electrical conductivity and piezoresistivity of papertronic devices.

12:45 Closing remarks    

No abstract for this day

No abstract for this day

Symposium organizers
Aaron MAZZEODepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

98 Brett Road. Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA

+1 848 228 2498
Antonio José Felix DE CARVALHOUniversidade de São Paulo

Department of Materials Engineering, Av. João Dagnone, 1100 Jd. Sta Angelina, CEP: 13563-120, São Carlos - SP – Brasil
Ari ALASTALOVTT, Printed and hybrid functionalities, Printed sensors and electronic devices

Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland
Luis PEREIRA (Main)Almascience CoLab

Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Masaya NOGIOsaka University

Department of Functionalized Natural Materials ISIR, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047, Japan