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Organic semiconductors: hybrid interfaces and charge transport

New concepts combining organic semiconductors multi layer device architectures with hybrid or inorganic semiconductors results in unprecedented functionalities and highly efficient devices. In these structures become crucial to design and understand charge carrier and exciton transport. The objective of this symposium is to highlight new developments in full organic and hybrid devices with a focus on transport.


While transport in organic semiconductors remains a topic of large interest, with reports of charge carrier mobility steadily increasing, the last years have seen a growing interest in new strategies for implementation in devices for energy, opto-electronics, magnetic memories, and sensors. In particular, the engineering of material interfaces where organics are in contact with other inorganic or hybrid materials results in new functionalities and sometimes record breaking performance.

In order to further exploit these new concepts a complete understanding of the charge and energy transfer at such interfaces is needed. In this symposium we aim at bringing together scientists from different disciplines, coming from the chemistry, physics and material science communities to discuss the most recent developments related to these emerging ideas. Moreover, we want to bridge the gaps often encountered between scientists in the field of inorganic perovskite or 2D chalcogenide materials and the organic semiconductors community.

The symposium offers space for discussing novel experimental and theoretical methods to probe and predict such new material architectures, as well as novel hetero-interface preparation methods and chemical synthesis of novel compounds. The sessions will cover fundamental aspects on the molecular description of transport phenomena, but also the implementation in real devices and the device physics and optimization needed for real world applications.

The symposium organizer collaborate with several industrial partners and expect to have a large participation from both the industrial and academic sectors.

Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:

  • Organic transport layers in full organic and hybrid devices
  • Interface states with metals and inorganic semiconductors
  • Charge separation at mesoscopic interfaces in photovoltaics and LEDs
  • Morphologically controlled doping
  • Morphology control and impact on charge transport in devices
  • Hybrid interfaces with magnetic materials
  • Charge and energy transfer in organic/organic bilayers
  • Intercalated 2D materials with organic molecules
  • Dielectrics in field effect transistor applications
  • Theoretical description of hybrid electronic states in doping and charge transfer
  • Novel optical and electrical methods to study transport phenomena
  • High efficiency devices by heterojunction engineering

List of invited speakers:

  • John Anthony (Univ Kentucky USA)
  • Paul Blom (MPI Mainz, Germany)
  • Mario Caironi (IIT, Italy)
  • Jenny Clark (Univ. Sheffield, UK)
  • Jerome Cornil (Univ Mons, Belgium)
  • Gabriele D’Avino (Institut Néel, Grenoble, France)
  • Carsten Deibel (TU Chemnitz, Germany)
  • Norbert Koch (Humboldt University, Berlin Germany)
  • Silvia Milita (CNR Bologna, Italy)
  • Takehiko Mori (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan)
  • Alberto Salleo (Stanford, USA)
  • Elizabeth von Hauff (VU Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • Gregor Witte (Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany)

List of scientific committee members:

  • Artem Bakulin (Imperial College, UK)
  • David Beljonne (Univ. Mons, Belgium)
  • Felix Deschler (Univ. Cambridge, UK)
  • Mauro Furno (Novaled GmbH, Germany)
  • René Janssen (TU Eindhoven, Netherlands)
  • Guglielmo Lanzani (IIT Milan, Italy)
  • David Lidzey (Univ. Sheffield, UK)
  • Erin Radcliffe (Univ. Arizona, USA)
  • Ifor Samuel (St Andrews Univ., UK)
  • Uli Scherf (Univ. Wuppertal, Germany)
  • Lukas Schmidt-Mende (Univ. Konstanz, Germany)
  • Patrick Too (FlexEnable Ltd, UK)
  • Conciepció Rovira (ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain)
  • Alison Walker (Univ. Bath, UK)
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Perovskite and hybrid organic/inorganic : Enrico Da Como
Authors : Norbert Koch
Affiliations : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik & IRIS Adlershof; Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie

Resume : Tuning the electronic energy levels at interfaces between organic and inorganic components in electronic and optoelectronic devices is of highest relevance for applications. For a given material pairing, employing an ultrathin molecular interlayer with adequate properties can facilitate the targeted energy level alignment. Examples of such interlayers based on strong molecular acceptors and donors that lead to an interfacial charge density rearrangement are discussed and the underlying charge transfer mechanisms identified, for electrode materials as well as bulk and 2D inorganic semiconductors. Beyond this static control of interfacial energy levels, the use of photochromic molecular switches adds a dynamic aspect, enabling multifunctional devices. In addition to light-induced work function changes that can shift the level alignment at interfaces, the energy gap renormalization of the photochromic molecules in different conformations impacts interfacial charge transfer via tunneling, as resonance can be switched on and off by the optical stimulus of photochromes.

Authors : Mohamed El Garah, Simone Bertolazzi, Stefano Ippolito, Matilde Eredia, Iwona Janica, Georgian Melinte, Ovidiu Ersen, Giovanni Marletta, Artur Ciesielski, Paolo Samorì
Affiliations : Dr. M. El Garah, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; Dr. S. Bertolazzi, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; S. Ippolito, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; M. Eredia, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; I. Janica, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; Dr. A. Ciesielski, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; Prof. P. Samorì, ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS; Prof. G. Marletta, Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemical Science University of Catania and CSGI; G. Melinte, Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg; Prof. O. Ersen, Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg

Resume : The family of TMDCs comprises materials with electronic properties spanning from insulating to semiconducting and metallic. Such a breadth of properties were key towards the development of various technological studies and processes to be exploited in different potential applications such as energy conversion and storage, electronics and sensors. Here, we report on a safe, fast and low cost electrochemical intercalation process of MoS2 crystals via lithium ion intercalation in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We perform the exfoliation under ambient conditions in short time (< 1 hour) by dissolving the lithium chloride in DMSO, 1 mol/L solution. The exfoliation is performed in ambient air and leads to the formation of mono- and few-layer thick nanosheets with a low fraction of metallic phase (≈35%), characterized by morphological and spectroscopic analysis. We have investigated the electronic properties of the nanosheets through the fabrication and characterization of back-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) based on individual MoS2 nanosheets. The latter display a unipolar n-type behavior with ION/IOFF ratios up to ≈10^2 and field-effect mobilities ranging between 10-3 and 10-2 cm2V-1s-1, likely limited by structural defects and disorder ─ e.g. coexistence of different polytypes ─ created during the intercalation/exfoliation process. Upon exposure of the devices to vapors of butanethiols, the field-effect mobility increases by over a factor 3, suggesting that sulfur vacancies are an abundant type of defects generated during the intercalation/exfoliation process.

Authors : Joel A. Smith¹, Onkar S. Game¹, Melissa McCarthy², David M. Coles¹, Michael Wong-Stringer¹, Thomas Routledge¹, Benjamin G. Freestone¹, Claire Greenland¹, Ian M. Povey², David G. Lidzey¹.
Affiliations : ¹ Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH, UK. ² Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex, Dyke Parade, Cork, Irland.

Resume : Current highest efficiency single junction perovskite solar cell architectures up to 22.6% utilise a dual electron transport layer comprising of a compact TiO2 hole blocking layer and a thicker mesoporous TiO2 layer which is infiltrated by perovskite [1]. This requires high temperature processing, is considered to be incompatible with many scalable processing techniques and may lead to degradation of the perovskite layer under normal irradiation (continuous UV exposure). SnO2 has emerged as a forerunner for planar, UV-stable hole-blocking layers, with two methods leading to efficiencies over 20% in literature [2,3]. Here, we investigated these proposed routes in the device architecture FTO/SnO2/CsI0.05((FAPbI3)0.83(MAPbBr3)0.17)0.95/spiro-OMeTAD/Au and find highly reproducible PCEs of over 18% utilizing nanoparticles without the use of interlayers. Solution processed methods offer certain advantages, but alternatives such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and vacuum-based techniques allow greater uniformity over larger areas. ALD of SnO2 has been previously shown to give cells with optimized band alignment for efficient, barrier-free charge extraction from various perovskite absorber layers [4]. However, it is time consuming, limited by the solubility of underlayers and unsuitable for roll-to-roll deposition. Vacuum-based techniques are widely used in industry and can avoid these disadvantages whilst still giving good layer uniformity. We report our latest work in developing scalable electron-beam evaporation of SnO2 with efficiencies comparable to those of ALD references. We also present our latest characterization work to better understand the requirements for SnO2 to act as an effective hole-blocking layer to achieve high performance by minimizing parasitic losses. References [1] Yang, Woon Seok, et al. "Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide–based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells." Science 356.6345 (2017): 1376-1379. [2] Anaraki, Elham Halvani, et al. "Highly efficient and stable planar perovskite solar cells by solution-processed tin oxide." Energy & Environmental Science 9.10 (2016): 3128-3134. [3] Jiang, Qi, et al. "Enhanced electron extraction using SnO2 for high-efficiency planar-structure HC(NH2)2PbI3-based perovskite solar cells." Nature Energy 2 (2016): 16177. [4] Baena, Juan Pablo Correa, et al. "Highly efficient planar perovskite solar cells through band alignment engineering." Energy & Environmental Science 8.10 (2015): 2928-2934.

Authors : Hye Ri Jung, Bich Phuong Nguyen, and William Jo
Affiliations : Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Korea

Resume : Tin-based perovskites are promising substitute for those problems with maintaining the superior photovoltaic properties of existing lead-based perovskites which achieved an eminent efficiency of 22.7% in solar cells. However, tin-based perovskite still shows low efficiency than the lead-based perovskites. We have investigated that the local electrical properties and surface potential distributions by using conductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. We particularly focused on the potential variations which are strongly dependent on grain boundaries and intragrains. Furthermore, optical excitation under illumination of laser light onto the samples also supported the different nature between them. Contrasting characteristics of the local potential between the grain boundaries and intragrains affects to play the different role with each carrier movements. We expect the investigation on the movement of carriers in the perovskite thin films will have a positive effect to complement the lack of tin-based perovskite solar cells by improving the electrical quality characteristics, such as the carrier collection and recombination.

Authors : Tulus (a,b), Magdalena Marszalek (a), Andreas Peukert (a), Olivera Vukovic (c), Yulia Galagan (c), Simon Christian Boehme (a) and Elizabeth von Hauff (a)
Affiliations : a. Physics of Energy, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands b. Center of the Polymer Technology, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Indonesia c. Solliance / TNO Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Resume : We fabricated ZnO nanorod arrays decorated with Au nanoparticles for use as the electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells. We show with current-voltage measurements, impedance analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy that the Au nanoparticles reduce recombination losses at the ZnO-perovskite interface. We compare the performance of double cation-mixed halide and triple cation-mixed halide perovskites in this architecture. The use of Au nanoparticles in the solar cells resulted in an increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor, leading to an increase in the maximum power conversion efficiency from 11.52 % to 12.62 % (double cation) and from 11.9 % to 12.66 % (triple cation). We discuss these results in terms of trap filling and surface passivation by the Au nanoparticles at the ZnO-perovskite interface.

Authors : Giampiero Ruani [1], Tania Ivanovska[1,2], Chiara Dionigi[1], Edoardo Mosconi[3,4], Filippo De Angelis[3,4]
Affiliations : 1. CNR-ISM, Bologna, Italy; 2. Saule Warsaw, Poland; 3. CNR-ISTM, Perugia, Italy; 4. IIT, Genova, Italy

Resume : Photoinduced infrared absorption has been used as a very efficient tool for detecting strong charge phonon coupling in materials and the eventual formation and detection of photoinduced long lived polarons. Electron and hole polarons photogeneration have been invoked by different authors to explain the large diffusion lengths of the carriers observed in CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite. Large diffusion length of both charge carriers, together with the large overlap of the optical absorption and the solar spectrum are the main elements of the high conversion photovoltaic efficiencies obtained in devices based on this material. This make extremely important to determine the origin of these characteristics. In other perovskite classes of materials, like high temperature superconductors, photoinduced infrared absorption allowed to revealed polaron formation. We performed room temperature photoinduced far infrared absorption (PIA) investigation in CH3NH3PbI3 in order to observe, and possible identify, the formation of photoinduced polarons in this material as well. Far infrared region coincide with the spectral interval of PbI6 octahedra phonons and mixed modes of the inorganic sublattice coupled to methylammoniun modes. The observed PIA spectrum in this region are compared with ab initio calculation; the calculation results reproduce the PIA spectrum identifying polarons generation with the formation of tilted PbI6 octahedra regions that determine electrons and holes spatial separation in different varieties inhibiting their recombination.

Authors : Benjamin G. Freestone1 Giacomo Piana 2 Joel Smith1, Andrew Parnell1 Orianna Ball Natalia Martsinovich3 and David G. Lidzey1
Affiliations : 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH, UK.;2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.;3 Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH, UK.

Resume : The addition of excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) to nonstoichiometric organic-inorganic mixed halide perovskite precursor solutions leads to apparent low-dimensional perovskite (LDP) nano-structures. Temperature dependant steady state photoluminescence (SSPL) indicates three high-energy features between 548 nm and 588 nm with a spacing of 20 nm (80 meV). These SSPL features, which become more pronounced as the sample is cooled below 200 K, also display narrow FWHM (8 nm). Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements suggests lifetimes of less than 2ns. Peak absorption features at 4 K can be seen at 543 nm (2.28 eV), 563 nm (2.20 eV) and 583 nm (2.13 eV). Thin film x-ray diffraction studies reveal LDP reflections seen at low angles corresponding to a d-spacing of 7.5 Å, implying an expansion of 1.2 Å between metal halide octahedra compared to the spacing in a 3D perovskite bulk crystal (6.3 Å). Theoretical calculations using DFT, van der Waals corrected C09 functional are in agreement with thin-film XRD reflections describing 2D lead octahedra sheet distances.

OLEDs and light emission : Enrico Da Como
Authors : Paul W.M. Blom
Affiliations : Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, Mainz, Germany

Resume : Conjugated polymers are attractive candidates for electronic applications since they can be processed from solution. This enables the production of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDS) or solar cells using a fast roll-to-roll newspaper-printing-style process. However, their solution processibility enables another option that until now has been less exploited. A fundamental disadvantage of semiconducting polymers is that their charge transport is unbalanced because electron transport is hindered by traps. This electron trapping seems to be universal in organic semiconductors and is dominated by a trap located at ~3.6 eV below vacuum. This universal defect also quenches the excitons in conjugated polymers. However, electronic properties of a conjugated polymer can be changed, or even new ones created, by blending the polymer with other functional materials. We have found that by blending poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives with wide band gap polymers the electron traps are deactivated. PLEDs made from such a blend exhibit a balanced transport and enhanced efficiency due to the strong reduction of non-radiative trap-assisted recombination. The voltage drift of a PLED driven at constant current is caused by the formation of hole traps, which leads to additional non-radiative recombination between free electrons and trapped holes. The observed trap formation rate is consistent with exciton-free hole interactions as the main mechanism behind PLED degradation. Revelation of hole trap formation being the cause of PLED degradation opens the possibility to suppress their negative effect on voltage and efficiency by blending the light-emitting polymer with a large band gap semiconductor. Due to trap-dilution these blend PLEDs show unprecedented stability.

Authors : Mario Prosa (1), Emilia Benvenuti (1), Mariacecilia Pasini (2), Umberto Giovanella (2), Margherita Bolognesi (1), Francesco Galeotti (2), Michele Muccini (1), Stefano Toffanin (1)
Affiliations : (1) Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy; (2) Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole (ISMac), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Resume : Organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) show, in a single device, the fascinating combination of electrical switching characteristics and light generation capability. However, to ensure an effective device operation, efficient injection of charges at the electrodes is required. In this context, the introduction of solution-processed conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) films at the emissive layer/electrodes interface represents a powerful strategy to improve the electron injection process. Despite the performance of the resulting OLETs is enhanced, the presence of ionic species in CPEs layers causes complications in the device response due to charge trapping and electric field screening effects. In this sight, the use of conjugated polar polymers (CPPs) can represent a valid alternative to CPEs since the conjugated backbones of CPPs are modified with polar non-ionic side groups, thus avoiding ion-depending drawbacks. By introducing a layer of polyfluorene containing phosphonate groups (PF-EP) underneath the metal electrodes, we here demonstrate a clear improvement of the electron injection properties and a more than twofold increased light-emission of p-type OLETs, with superior performance in comparison with the relative CPE-containing devices. To note, the hybrid wet- and dry- deposition approach followed for the OLET fabrication represents an interesting strategy to improve the device performance while preserving a low complexity of the fabrication process.

Authors : Sudam D. Chavhan, Tsu Hao Ou (Jack), Jwo-Huei Jou*
Affiliations : Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, 30013, Taiwan.

Resume : Solution processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted great attention because of their feasibility in large-area size, cost-effective and high-throughput device fabrication. So far PEDOT:PSS is the archetypical hole injection/transport material for solution processed OLEDs. However, its low work function and problematical chemical properties, such as being hygroscopic and corrosiveness, compromising the power efficiency. To overcome, we present herein a copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a hole injecting/transporting layer (HIL/HTL) for high efficiency solution processed OLED. Green OLED devices were fabricated by comprising PEDOT:PSS or CuSCN as HTL, 4,4’-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1’-biphenyl (CBP) as host, and Bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-N)phenyl-C](acetylacetonato)iridium (III) ((ppy)2Ir (acac)) as green emitter via solution process, and 2,2',2"-(1,3,5-benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) as electron transporting layer (ETL) and cathode were deposited by thermal evaporation process. The CuSCN based device shows 51.7 and 40.3 lm/W power efficacies at 100 and 1000 cd/m2, respectively, which are13% and 60 % higher than the PEDOT:PSS based counterpart. These are the highest power efficacies ever reported for this particular device architecture. The high efficiency may be attributed to the high LUMO (-1.8 eV) and deep HOMO (-5.5 eV) of CuSCN as comparing to PEDOT:PSS, which respectively assist confine the electron injected into the emission layer and facilitate the injection of hole, likewise enhancing recombination. We are investigating the role of CuSCN and exploit its excellent optoelectronic properties to fabricate highly efficient white OLEDs for general lighting purpose. Keywords: organic light-emitting diode, charge carrier mobility, recombination rate density, electron transporting material.

Authors : Irina Rörich, Ann-Kathrin Schönbein, Christian Kasparek, Christian Bauer, N. Irina Crăciun, Paul W. M. Blom, and Charusheela Ramanan
Affiliations : Irina Rörich1,2*; Ann-Kathrin Schönbein1; Christian Kasparek1; Christian Bauer1; N. Irina Crăciun1; Paul W. M. Blom1; Charusheela Ramanan1 1Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, Germany 2Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven, The Netherlands *e-mail:

Resume : Amorphous organic semiconductor materials are subject to energetic disorder due to structural defects and impurities. This results in dispersive charge and exciton transport, which affects optoelectronic device performance. We characterized the exciton transport and decay processes in two poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) based semiconducting polymers with varying degree of energetic disorder. Temperature-dependent time-resolved photo-luminescence (PL) measurements reveal a correlation between conformational energetic disorder and the balance between radiative and non-radiative decay processes. The exciton diffusion coefficient and diffusion length also exhibit distinct temperature dependence based on the disorder. We explored the manifestation of these differences in the temperature-dependent current efficiencies of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). Since the amount of photons emitted by the PLED is governed in part by the PL efficiency, the PLED temperature dependence should also vary as that of the PL. Our findings indicate that the less ordered polymer exhibits temperature independent efficiencies, as is typically expected for these materials. However, the more ordered polymer demonstrates an increase in PLED current efficiency with decreasing temperature due to the reduced exciton population of non-radiative quenching-sites. We attribute this difference to the interplay between energetic disorder and the balance of excitonic decay processes in polymer films.

Authors : Amadou Thierno Diallo, Samira Khadir, Mahmoud Chakaroun and Azzedine Boudrioua
Affiliations : Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers - CNRS UMR 7538, Université Paris 13 Paris-Sorbonne Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse, France

Resume : We report a thorough investigation of the influence of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on the performance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The typical OLED structure is ITO/m-MTDATA/NPB/Alq3: DCM (2%) /BCP/Bphen/LiF /Al. NPs are randomly dispersed by vapor disposition at different location during the OLED fabrication. The purpose of this study is to probe the effect of NPs LSPR on the electrical and optical parameters that govern the OLED operation and performances. Ag and Au NPs presenting different extinction spectrum are used in order to be able to act, separately, on each parameter. The effect of these NPs on the charges transport process is studied by incorporating the NPs on both sides of the exciton recombination zone. Results indicate an improvement of the electrical characteristics by reducing the turn-on voltage of almost 3V, which allows luminous efficiencies improvement of almost 20%. We, also, study the effect of the distance between the emitter and NPs (the exciton-LSP coupling) in order to tune the exciton–plasmonic far field coupling in the OLED. For that, we use an ultrathin red-emitting layer, inserted into the EML, as a sensor film. Results show that by adjusting the position of the red-emitting layer, a very accurate control of the coupling between the excitons and the LSPR can be obtained. For instance, at a distance of 45 nm from the EML, NPs allow an improvement of almost 80% of the red emission.

Authors : Ulrich Hörmann, Stefan Zeiske, Fortunato Piersimoni, Lukas Hoffmann, Thomas Riedl, Denis Andrienko, Dieter Neher
Affiliations : University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany; University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany; University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany; University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, Germany University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany

Resume : Recent studies have shown that the electroluminescence (EL) signal originating from hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTX) at metal oxide/organic interfaces depends not only on the interface energetics [1] but also on the applied bias. Models to explain this observation base either on surface-trapped HCTXs in combination with state filling [2], or on the assumption of delocalized HCT state confined in a triangular quantum well created by the electric field [3]. We demonstrate that the bias dependency of HCTX emission depends critically on the exact material system and the history of the sample. For ZnO/organic hybrid devices we find that the shift of the EL peak energy with increasing bias becomes significantly reduced after an initial exposure of the device to UV light. The remaining bias dependency is unaffected by the level of ZnO photodoping and can be well described by electrostatic models. For a SnO2 based hybrid system we observe a direct relation between the reconstructed quasi Fermi-level splitting at the heterojunction and the EL peak position after a burn-in process - a clear sign of a state filling dominated process. Our data hence indicate that both state filling and electrostatic effects may be present and jointly yield the observed bias dependency of the EL signal originating from hybrid interfaces. [1] Piersimoni et al. / Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 500 (2015) [2] Panda et al. / Phys. Rev. B 94, 125429 (2016) [3] Eyer et al. / Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 221602 (2015)

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Materials for charge transport : Marta Mas-Torrent
Authors : John E. Anthony
Affiliations : University of Kentucky

Resume : Charge transport in organic solids is intimately dependent on the precise order between aromatic cores in the solid state. We developed a simple, reliable model for tuning this solid-state order (silylethyne functionalization) which has realized impressive charge transport performance across a wide array of aromatic and hetero-aromatic cores. However, this approach does not work for all systems, either due to difficulties in synthesis of appropriate precursors, or due to low stability or solubility of the resulting product. Here, I will present a very recently developed "core" system that allows precise solid-state tuning of the order of a very wide array of aromatic chromophores. Using simple, mild coupling techniques, these cores can be tuned to induce a wide array of pi-stacked orders, arising from a simple library of tunable core molecules. Stability in these systems is dramatically enhanced compared to e.g. acenes, and hole mobilities higher than 4 cm2/Vs have been observed. The scope, assessment of disorder, and thin-film structural properties of these new chromophores will also be discussed.

Authors : M.-A. Stoeckel(1), M. Gobbi(1), F. Liscio(2), D. Dudenko(3), M. Zbiri(4), L. Razzari(5), A. Guilbert(6), M.-V. Nardi(7), Y. Olivier(3), L. Pasquali(8), J. Nelson(6), D. Beljonne(3), E. Orgiu(1,5), P. Samorì(1)
Affiliations : (1) Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, ISIS, 67000 Strasbourg, France; (2) CNR - IMM Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy; (3) Université de Mons, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgium; (4) Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble, France; (5) INRS-Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, 1650 Blv. Lionel-Boulet, J3X 1S2 Varennes, Québec; (6) Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK; (7) Istituto dei Materiali per l’Elettronica ed il Magnetismo, IMEM-CNR, Sezione di Trento, via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo, 38100 Trento, Italy; (8) Dipartimento di Ingegneria E. Ferrari, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Vivarelli 10, 41125 Modena, Italy;

Resume : In organic semiconductors, band-like transport is peculiar to charge carriers that are delocalized over more than a single molecular unit and it is associated with an increase in carrier mobility upon decreasing of temperature. Hitherto, how such type of transport is related to molecular design is not fully understood and, generally, a comprehensive picture of its origin is lacking[1]. In this work, we used two dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide derivatives (PDI) molecules with different lateral chains that were either fluorinated, PDIF-CN2 or alkylated, PDI8-CN2. The former derivative would exhibit band-like transport whilst hopping transport was identified as the main conduction mechanism for the latter. Both molecules were exposed to comparable extrinsic disorder that is considered to stem from the substrate1. A comparative study that includes multiple characterization techniques such as inelastic neutron scattering, THz and PE spectroscopy, GIWAXS, electrical characterization but also modeling and simulations allows us to unravel the origin of band-like transport mechanism by looking at the molecular fluctuations and their effect on the phonon modes of both compounds. [1] N. A. Minder, S. Ono, Z. Chen, A. Facchetti, A. F. Morpurgo, Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 503.

Materials for transport : Marta Mas-Torrent
Authors : Takehiko Mori,1 Kodai Iijima,1 Yann Le Gal,2 Toshiki Higashino,3 Ryo Sanada,1 Dongho Yoo,1 Ryonosuke Sato,1 Tadashi Kawamoto,1 Dominique Lorcy2
Affiliations : 1 Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, O-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, 152-8552, Japan. 2 Université de Rennes 1, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226, Matière Condensée et Systèmes Electroactifs (MaCSE), campus de Beaulieu, Bât 10A, 35042 Rennes cedex, France. 3 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565, Japan.

Resume : It is still an important task to explore high-performance n-channel organic semiconductors with ambient stability. To this end, we have attempted two different approaches using (1) characteristic acceptor molecules based on birhodanines and (2) mixed-stack charge-transfer crystals. For the first approach, birhodanines (5,5'-bithiazolidinylidene-2,2'-dione-4,4'-dithiones) are prepared by a several-minute one-step reaction at room temperature from commercially available reagents [1]. The tetrathione analogues, 5,5'-bithiazolidinylidene-2,4,2',4'-tetrathiones, are strong acceptors with the LUMO level of −4.2 eV, where the thin-film transistors are operated in air, and not degraded after several-month storage in air. The birhodanines are slightly weaker acceptors with the LUMO level of −3.8 eV, but the transistors show reasonable air stability. Many kinds of chemical modifications are possible by replacing the 3-substituents, by which we can change the solubility and structures. For the second approach, mixed-stack charge-transfer crystals such as (BTBT)(TCNQ) exhibit n-channel transistor properties with ambient stability [2]. Since D-to-D hole hopping and A-to-A electron hopping are both represented by the same transfer, it is somewhat mysterious that many TCNQ complexes show only electron transport. However, the dominance of electron transport is explained by the large contribution of the donor HOMO−1 to the electron transport owing to the symmetry matching. [1] K. Iijima et al, J. Mater. Chem. C 2017, 5, 9121. [2] R. Sato et al, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2017, 121, 6561.

Structure morphology and transport : Beatrice Fraboni
Authors : Elizabeth von Hauff
Affiliations : Department of Physics & Astronomy, VU Amsterdam

Resume : Organic semiconductors have potential to enable low cost, large scale, flexible electronics. The major challenge to achieve commercial applications with organic semiconductors is obtaining stable thin films with good electrical properties. Organic semiconductors exhibiting liquid crystalline (LC) mesophases have shown promising results for the fabrication of stable, ordered films for organic electronics. In particular, soluble small molecules that form crystalline films at room temperature, but demonstrate ordered LC phases at higher temperatures, combine the advantages of good chemical purity, molecular self-assembly, high carrier mobility, and excellent structural and thermal stability. In this talk I will present our recent work on LC dyes. The soluble small molecule dyes form crystalline films with good structural integrity. We observed that annealing and cooling the films through LC mesophases at higher temperatures leads to increased crystal domain size, but also local structural defects in the crystalline film. These defects were correlated with increased π – π interactions between molecular neighbours, leading to an increase in both hole and electron mobility. We show how this effect can be exploited to create stable organic thin films demonstrating balanced ambipolar transport. [1] Tchamba et al, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2017, 9, 6228–6236

Authors : Inés Temiño, Ana Pérez-Rodríguez, Stefano Lai, Carmen Ocal, Esther Barrena, Piero Cossedu, Annalisa Bonfiglio, Tobias Cramer, Beatrice Fraboni, Marta Mas-Torrent.
Affiliations : Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Piazza d’Armi, 09134 Cagliari, Italy; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Piazza d’Armi, 09134 Cagliari, Italy; Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Piazza d’Armi, 09134 Cagliari, Italy; Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy; Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Resume : A competitive market entry for organic electronics requires the implementation of a simple, cheap and scalable solution technique. One of the major advances in solution processing comes from the idea of blending a small molecule semiconductor with an amorphous insulating polymer, to take advantage of the high carrier mobility of the crystalline component and the processability enhancement provided by the polymer. By employing this strategy, the Bar-Assisted Meniscus Shearing (BAMS) technique has already succeeded in fabricating high performance Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs). [1] Although the superior performance of these two-component OFETs is attributed to the vertical phase separation of the two materials, the details of this structuration are not always understood or studied enough. This question is addressed here [2] by combining AFM and FFM techniques. Furthermore, to stablish a correlation between this stratification and the electrical properties, we have performed KPFM measurements in operating OFETs. In parallel, the influence of the semiconductor morphology on the OFET response under mechanical stress has been investigated.[3] A detailed AFM and SKPM analysis of the devices before and after bending showed that the change in current observed upon deformation can be justified by a variation in contact resistance together with the formation of nanocracks in the semiconductor film. REFS: [1] I. Temiño, et al. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2016, 1, 1600090. [2] A. Pérez-Rodríguez, I. Temiño, et al. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, submitted. [3] S. Lai+, I. Temiño+, et al. Adv. Electron. Mater. 2017, 1700271. (+These authors contributed equally to the work)

Authors : S. Bonacchi [1], L. Ferlauto [1-2], M. Gobbi [1], M.-A. Stoeckel [1], F. Liscio [2], S. Milita [2], E. Orgiu [1-3], P. Samorì[1]
Affiliations : [1] Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, ISIS, 8 allée Gaspard Monge, 67000 Strasbourg, France [2] CNR - Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (IMM), I-40129 Bologna, Italy [3] Present address: INRS-Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, 1650 Blv. Lionel-Boulet, J3X 1S2 Varennes, Québec, Canada

Resume : Solution processable semiconducting polymers with excellent film forming capacity and mechanical flexibility are emerging as alternatives to conventional inorganic semiconductors. However, the required optimization of the charge transport within conjugated polymers can be obtained only through a full control of the molecular assembly at the different length scales. Here, we present a general strategy, based on Langmuir-Schäfer deposition, to control the polymer organization to form uniaxially aligned architectures at the water-air interface prior to their transfer onto a flat substrate. In particular, we demonstrate that the hole mobility of isoindigo-based conjugated polymer, [1] in our films processed in air is comparable with those previously reported for films prepared under N2 atmosphere. Interestingly, the transport is anisotropic: structural (GIXD) and morphological (AFM) characterization revealed that the mobility is higher in the direction perpendicular to the polymer backbone. This method, based on the (macro)molecular pre-assembly at the water-air interface, can be applied to grow layer-by-layer structures of polymers possessing different electronic properties. [1] S. Bonacchi, M. Gobbi, L. Ferlauto, M.-A. Stoeckel, F. Liscio, S. Milita, E. Orgiu, P. Samorì, ACS Nano, 2017, 11, 2000–2007

Authors : Alberto D Scaccabarozzi, Diego Nava, Mario Caironi
Affiliations : Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Via Pascoli 70/3 20133 Milano (Italy)

Resume : The extensive research in the field or organic electronics has led to remarkable enhancements of field-effect transistors (OFETs) charge carrier mobilities, which exceed now the benchmark value of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. OFETs showing such high efficiency are typically designed with relatively large channel lengths (tens of microns) in order to reduce the detrimental effect of contact resistance, which ultimately hinders the real potential of this technology. As a result, a downscaling of the device size leads typically to a large reduction of the extracted field-effect mobility and other device performance. Molecular doping could offer an effective tool to resolve some of these issues, however it has been proven challenging to implement this approach without affecting structural properties of the materials and operational functionality of devices. Here we present a doping approach involving the employment of multi-layered active layers in bottom-gate top-contact field-effect transistors. An optimal injection from the contacts is obtained by confining the dopant in the bottom layer, thus exempting the accumulated channel from doping and therefore preserving the typical charge transport of the pristine polymer. In order to achieve such device architecture, solution based polymer blend systems have been employed; this approach has been proved valid for different type of semiconducting polymers, both p- and n- type.

Authors : T. D. Cornelissen (1), A. V. Gorbunov (2), M. Garcia Iglesias (3), J. Guilleme (4), W. S. C. Roelofs (2), T. Torres (4) , D. González-Rodríguez (4), E. W. Meijer (3), M. Kemerink (1,2)
Affiliations : (1) Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden; (2) Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; (3) Institute of Complex Molecular Systems, Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; (4) Departamento de Química Orgánica (C-I), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain;

Resume : Non-volatile organic memories can be fabricated by careful blending of semiconducting and ferroelectric polymers. Here, we present a class of materials that has the same functionality in a single material, by combining different functional sub-units whose strong electronic coupling leads to new and exciting properties. We have synthesized disc-like semiconducting organic molecules that are functionalized with strong dipolar side groups. These materials self-assemble into supramolecular polymers, which provides long-range polar order that supports collective ferroelectric behavior of the side groups, as well as charge transport through the stacked semiconducting cores. We find that the ferroelectric polarization couples to the charge transport and leads to a bulk conductivity that is both switchable and rectifying. When sweeping the applied electric field, the conductivity will switch from a high to low state at exactly the ferroelectric coercive field. Detailed analysis of the current-voltage curves shows that the current is a combination of Ohmic and space-charge-limited currents. This demonstrates that it truly is the bulk conductivity that is modulated by the ferroelectric polarization. A simple quasi-1D hopping model is developed to investigate the effect of the asymmetric potential caused by the polarization. This model reproduces the experimental on/off ratio using reasonable parameters.

Transport anc crystalline structures : Beatrice Fraboni
Authors : Silvia Milita
Affiliations : IMM CNR

Resume : TBA

Authors : A. Atxabal (1), T. Arnold (2), S. Parui (3), E. Zuccatti (1), M. Cinchetti (4), F. Casanova (1), (5), F. Ortmann2, L. E. Hueso (1), (5)
Affiliations : (1) CIC nanoGUNE, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain / (2) Institute for Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany / (3) Imec, Leuven, Belgium / (4) Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany / (5) IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain

Resume : Modern technological devices based on organic semiconductors strongly rely on the energy position of the molecular orbitals and the associated energy gap (1). So far there is not any reliable technique that can determine the transport energy gap in the bulk of an organic semiconductor (2). This often results in the adoption of inadequate substitutes, such as the fundamental, optical or interface gaps (2). In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a non-destructive in-device approach based on in-device molecular spectroscopy (i-MOS) (3, 4, 5) technique that allows both mapping the relative energy of molecular orbitals and extracting the transport energy gap of a molecular semiconductor (6). Moreover, through the injection of energetic electrons into the organic semiconductor, we can access and manipulate unprecedented electronic transport regimes, such as negative differential resistance (NDR) (7) arising from a Marcus inversion (8) phenomenon (6). Our results demonstrate that i-MOS is extremely powerful spectroscopic technique for organic electronic community as well as revolutionary tool for exploring new charge injection physics in organic semiconductor with novel NDR possibilities for electronic circuiting (6). References 1. V. Shrotriya, Y. Shao, D. Sievers, Band structure engineering in organic semiconductors. Science. 352, 1446–1449 (2016). 2. J. L. Bredas, Mind the gap! Mater. Horiz. 1, 17–19 (2014). 3. M. Gobbi et al., Determination of energy level alignment at metal/molecule interfaces by in-device electrical spectroscopy. Nat. Commun. 5, 4161 (2014). 4. A. Atxabal et al., Energy Level Alignment at Metal / Solution-Processed Organic Semiconductor Interfaces. Adv. Mater. 10, 1606901–6 (2017). 5. T. Arnold et al., Hot Electrons and Hot Spins at Metal-Organic Interfaces. Acepted in Adv. Funct. Matt. (2017). 6. R. Yan et al., Esaki Diodes in van der Waals Heterojunctions with Broken-Gap Energy Band Alignment. Nano Lett. 15, 5791–5798 (2015). 7. R. A. Marcus, On the Theory of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer. I. J. Chem. Phys. 24, 966–978 (1956). 8. A. Atxabal et al., Molecular spectroscopy and Marcus inversion regime in a solid-state device. In-preparation.

Authors : A. Cappai 1, D. Galliani 2, A. Antidormi 1, D. Narducci 2 and C. Melis 1
Affiliations : 1 Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy; 2 Department of Materials Science, University of Milano-Bicocca, via Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milan, Italy

Resume : Thermoelectric devices are promising and environmentally friendly systems to recover energy from industrial waste heat or natural heat. Organic semiconductors represent promising candidates as thermoelectric materials due to their peculiar features: low thermal conductivity, high flexibility and low cost. It is however recognized that the ultimate performances are strongly dependent on the morphological aspects and consequently on the synthesis procedure. The causal relationships synthesis/morphology and morphology/properties are still under debate. In this scenario atomistic simulations provide a fundamental tool to get insights into this problem by obtaining a microscopic scale description of the polymerization process which is presently not experimentally available. In this work, we present a novel computational tool to model polymerization by means of a suitable combination of first principles DFT simulations and classical molecular dynamics. The present tool allows to generate realistic polymer samples starting from the basic monomers by simulating the actual experimental synthesis. The system dimensions are in the order of several tenths of nm corresponding to about 10^6 atoms. We present the results of the application of the above procedure to the case of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) under several experimental conditions i.e. different solvents, oxidants, and temperatures. The overall effect on the morphological and thermoelectric properties will be discussed.

17:00 Poster Session I    
Authors : Congcong Zhang
Affiliations : Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research University of Jinan Jinan 250011, China

Resume : Low-cost, portable, and real-time monitoring, electronic devices based on π-conjugated species,wherein small organic molecules, oligomers and polymers, and low-dimensional carbon materials, worked as the active materials, should be generally concerned as the next generation of sensing devices. On one hand, the inherent characteristics of π-conjugated systems, such as their susceptible to noncovalent interaction including hydrogen bonds, charge transfer, dipole-dipole interactions, photoexcitation and reversible transformations, enabling effective detection of various stimuli. On the other hand, their light-weight, mechanical flexibility and their generally good solution peocessability as well as good compatibility with large-area and flexible solid supports, endow them manufacturing of sensing devices using a wide range of desired or arbitrary solid supports as substrates, such as glass, paper, plastic, and others more. More importantly, diverse assembly processible methods, such as interfacial assembly, casting, spin coating, layer-by-layer assembly, evaporation, and roll-to-roll protocols (inkjet printing, screen printing) etc. could be used to achieve new materials with new functions, where the tedious synthesis work for π-conjugated systems bearing specific sensing groups could be avoided. With a special emphasis on the state-of-the-art works recently, the main aim of this report is to provide a general overview about the importance of supramolecular assembly in the progress of sensing field. First, we briefly introduce the concept of sensors, and then we will put emphasis on the impactful protocols of how to improve the performance of the sensor through nanoassembly of π-conjugated systems. Finally, we put forward an outlook for future directions in sensing field. We hope that the discussions presented herein will be beneficial to the design of future sensing devices with high performance.

Authors : Yasemin Torlak1,2
Affiliations : 1Pamukkale University, Cal Vocational High School,20700,Denizli,Turkey 2Selcuk University Advanced Technology Research and Application Center,42000,Konya,Turkey

Resume : This works focus on an enhancement of solar cell performance by incorporating of Dawson-type POM-based compounds ,organogermyl and organosilyl complexes including organic chains having terminal -COOH and allyl groups, that is, two organogermyl complexes. Multifunctional Polyoxometalate (POM)-based inorganic-organic hybrid compounds, [α2-P2W17O61{(RGe)}]7- and [α2-P2W17O61{(RSi)2O}]6- into monolacunary site of Dawson polyoxoanion [α2-P2W17O61]10-. In this paper, we report full details of the synthesis and characterization of these complexes and their molecular structures [1]. References [1] Nomiya, K., Togashi, Y. , Kasahara, Y. , Aoki, S. , Seki, H. , Noguchi, M. , Yoshida, S. , Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 9606–9619.

Authors : Yasemin Torlaka,b, Arif Kivrakc
Affiliations : a Pamukkale University, Cal Vocational High School,20700,Denizli,Turkey b Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Cente c Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Science, Chem. Dept., 65080, Van, Turkey

Resume : In this study, we designed and prepared a varieties of anthracene-based organic small molecules for OSCs application. A variety of novel anthracene based donor-acceptor (D-A) type molecules, namely, 2-((5-(10-(thiophen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)thiophen-2-yl)methylene)malononitrile (Mono-ThAnt-E1A), (Z)-2-(3-oxo-2-((5-(10-(thiophen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)thiophen-2-yl)methylene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene)malononitrile (Mono-ThAnt-E2A), 2-(1-(5-(10-(thiophen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)thiophen-2-yl)ethylidene)malononitrile (Mono-ThAnt-E1B), and 2-(1-(5-(10-(thiophen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl)thiophen-2-yl)ethylidene)malononitrile (Mono-ThAnt-E1C) were synthesized. Electrochemical and electrooptical properties was calculated before fabrication for OSCs. We observed that the results for 7% doping gave best value for all materials, and Mono-ThAnt-E1C was best candidate for applications (Efficiency = 4.39). From this study, we concluded the strong electron withdrawing groups and acetyl groups significantly influenced the properties of antrahcene based structures and this study may be useful for the design of novel anthracene based organic compounds for future OSCs application.

Authors : Su-Kyo Jung, Jin Hyuck Heo, Dae Woon Lee, Seung-Chul Lee,a, Seung-Heon Lee, Woojin Yoon, Hoseop Yun, Sang Hyuk Im, Jong H. Kim, O-Pil Kwon*
Affiliations : 1 Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea 2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea 3 Department of Chemistry & Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea

Resume : Naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives have been attracted considerable attention for small molecule-based n-type organic semiconductors and investigated extensively due to their high electron mobility, low-cost, solution processability, and high thermal and environmental stability. We have recently investigated a series of N-substituted NDI small molecules by incorporating various N-substituted groups for high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Both NDI-1 and NDI-2 consisting of different N-substituted groups were synthesized by simple one-step reaction and exhibit high thermal stability. NDI derivatives exhibit high electron mobility in FET measurements. With single crystal structure analysis, the intermolecular interactions (e.g. hydrogen bonds, face-to-face and edge to face pi-pi interactions) and space-filling characteristics of NDI derivatives are investigated. NDI-based PSCs exhibit very high power conversion efficiency (PCE), which is higher than that of fullerene-based PSCs.

Authors : Young-Geun Ha
Affiliations : Kyonggi University

Resume : For large-area, printable, and flexible electronic applications using advanced semiconductors, novel dielectric materials with excellent capacitance, insulating property, thermal stability and mechanical flexibility need to be developed to achieve high-performance, ultralow-voltage operation of thin-film transistors (TFTs). Herein, we report on the facile fabrication of multifunctional hybrid multilayer gate dielectrics with tunable surface energy via a low-temperature solution-process to produce ultralow-voltage organic and amorphous oxide TFTs. The hybrid multilayer dielectric materials are constructed by iteratively stacking bifunctional phosphonic acid-based self-assembled monolayers combined with ultrathin high-k oxide layers. The nanoscopic thickness-controllable hybrid dielectrics exhibit the superior capacitance (up to 970 nF/cm2), insulating property (leakage current densities < 10-7 A/cm2), and thermal stability (up to 300 °C) as well as smooth surfaces (root-mean-square roughness < 0.35 nm). In addition, the surface energy of the hybrid multilayer dielectrics are easily changed by switching between mono- and bifunctional phosphonic acid-based self-assembled monolayers for compatible fabrication with both organic and amorphous oxide semiconductors. Consequently, the hybrid multilayer dielectrics integrated into TFTs reveal their excellent dielectric functions to achieve high-performance, ultralow-voltage operation (< ±2 V) for both organic and amorphous oxide TFTs.

Authors : R. Avetisov, A. Akkuzina, N. Kozlova, I. Avetissov
Affiliations : Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia

Resume : A new technique for analysis of "Ligand partial pressure - Temperature" diagram have been developed for the metal-organic phosphor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) M ( M=Al, Ga, In). The detection of mono- and bivariant equilibriums within the p(8-Hq)-T diagram have been done using simultaneous measurements of photoluminescence and reflection spectra of a condense phase under controlled p(8-Hq) and T. Using preparations with the purity better 99.999 wt% the corresponding p(8-Hq)-T diagrams were plotted in the temperature range from 350 K to the maximum melting temperatures. The homogeneity ranges of different polymorphs vs nonstoichiometrical composition have been established. For the alfa-phases it were demonstrated that changing the synthesis conditions within the homogeneity range of the phases resulted to the drastically changes of the nonstoichiometry, cell volumes, chemical activities and electroluminescent properties of the OLED structures, prepared on the base of alfa-Mq3. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research by grant 16-32-60035.

Authors : O.Petrova, I. Stepanova, R. Saifutyarov, I. Taydakov, A. Akkuzina, A. Khomyakov, A. Lipatiev, V. Sigaev, R. Avetisov, I. Avetisov
Affiliations : Dmitry Mendeleev Univeristy of Chemical Technology of Russia

Resume : Thin films (50-100 nm) of inorganic glasses and hybrid materials (HM’s) based on inorganic glass matrices and various organic phosphors were prepared by layer-by-layer vacuum sputtering and glass or metal coated glass substrates. HM-based films with locally controlled PL and glass films with locally controlled crystalline areas were fabricated by Pharos SP laser (wavelength 1030 nm, pulse duration from 180 to 5000 fs, frequency repetition from 1 to 1000 kHz, maximum power 6 W). The HM-based films demonstrated the shift in PL wavelength due to processing of the exchange reaction between organic complexes and glass matrices. Local crystallization of glass and local formation of HM's thin films by femtosecond laser beam allowed creating 2D integrated optics elements. The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation by grant 14-13-01074П and 16-03-00541.

Authors : Seung Hun Eom1, So Youn Nam1, Hee Jin do1, Jaemin Lee1, Changjin Lee1, In Hwan Jung2, and Sung Cheol Yoon1*
Affiliations : 1. Adv. Mater. Division, KRICT, Daejeon 34114, Korea 2. Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea

Resume : To enhance the performance of inverted organic solar cells (OPVs), we have designed and synthesized novel donor-acceptor type interfacial modifiers (IMs) with high dipole moments about 10 debye, Our IMs are able to provide better surface properties for the ZnO based cathode buffer layer and achieved via a strategy that combines dual-functional self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modification of ZnO cathode buffer layer. As a result, the PTB7-Th:PC70BM based inverted OPVs treated with IMs on ZnO layer showed enhanced PCE (about 115%) compared to conventional ZnO based OPVs. These results are obtained very reproducibly regardless of the type of polymer donor material in OPVs. Also, our IMs incorporated OPVs showed enhanced thermal stability over 80% after 1,000 hr at 85 oC/85% RH condition which is much higher than conventional ZnO based OPVs (below 40%). Furthermore, we found our IMs can be used as a cathode buffer layer for high-efficiency, low-temperature ZnO based planar perovskite solar cells. The incorporation of IMs improves the quality of PbI2 layers and final perovskite layers during sequential deposition, while charge extraction is enhanced via electric dipole effects. Leveraged by IMs modification, our low-temperature ZnO based PSCs achieve an unprecedentedly high power conversion efficiency of 18.82% with a Voc of 1.13 V, a Jsc of 21.72 mA cm−2, and a FF of 0.76. Finally, we conclude that our strategy used IMs can be used to produce additional performance enhancements of OPVs and PSCs.

Authors : Teng TENG1 , Piotr SLECZKOWSKI2, David KREHER1, Lydia SOSA-VARGAS1, Jean-Charles RIBIERRE2,3, Fabrice MATHEVET1*
Affiliations : 1 Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, UMR 8232, Chimie des Polymères, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France. 2 Department of Physics, Quantum MetaMaterials Research Center, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea 3 Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan * Corresponding author:

Resume : Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) show great potential for the fabrication of low cost, flexible, and high-performance electronic devices in the past decade1,2. Among OFET devices, ambipolar OFETs based on organic semiconducting materials able to transport both types of charge carriers (hole and electron) have a great interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells and ultrathin CMOS logic circuits.3. In order to fabricate high performance ambipolar OFETs, the design and synthesize of efficient narrow-bandgap molecules is still needed. In this work, a narrow bandgap pi-conjugated molecule based on a naphthalenediimide core was successfully synthesized via the incorporation of additional π-donor (thiophene) and acceptor (benzothiadiazole) units to achieve an overall bandgap of 1.8eV, as determined by cyclic voltammetry and by DFT calculations. The ambipolar mobilities of this derivative were evaluated in field effect transistor configuration (OFET) and have been found to be significantly improved by thermal deposition. Charge carrier mobility of 0.021 and 0.032 cm2 V-1 s-1 for hole and electron respectively were obtained.

Authors : Ming-Hsien Li, Hung-Hsiang Yeh, Yu-Hsien Chiang, Peter Chen
Affiliations : Department of Photonics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan

Resume : Multi-dimensional halide perovskites have emerge as a new class of optoelectonic materials. For the first time, we explore the fabrication of dimensionality-engineering organometallic halide perovskite via low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process (LP-VASP). ). It was found that 2D/3D mixed halide perovskite can be formed by LP-VASP with larger A-site organic cation. The phenyl ethyl-ammonium iodide (PEAI)-doped lead iodide (PbI2) is firstly coated onto the substrate and then reacts with methyl-ammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in the low pressure heating oven. The doping ratio of PEAI in MAI-vapor treated perovskite has significant impact on the crystalline structure, surface morphology, grain size, optical properties (UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra), and the resultant device performance. The dimensionality of the as-fabricated perovskite film reveals an evolution from 2D, hybrid 2D/3D to 3D structure when the doping level of PEAI/PbI2 changes from 2 to 0. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) mapping show that the PEAI-containing perovskite grain is formed around MAPbI3 perovskite grain to benefit MAPbI3 grain growth. The device employing perovskite with PEAI/PbI2 = 0.05 achieves a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.10 % with a open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 1.08 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc ) of 21.91 mA/cm2 and a remarkable fill factor (FF) of 80.36%.

Authors : Min Je Kim,1, A-Ra Jung,2, Myeongjae Lee,3, Yongsuk Choi,1, Dongun Lim,1, Ajjiporn Dathbun,1, Dongjin Kim,4 Suhee Ro,2 Seon-Mi Jin,5 Nguyen Dinh Hieu,6 Jeehye Yang,7 Kyung-Koo Lee,6 Eunji Lee,5 Moon Sung Kang,7 Hyunjung Kim,4 Jong Ho Choi,3 BongSoo Kim,2,* and Jeong Ho Cho1
Affiliations : 1SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea 2Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea 3Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea 4Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742, Republic of Korea 5Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea 6Department of Chemistry, Kunsan National University, Kunsan-si 54150, Republic of Korea 7Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Republic of Korea

Resume : We report high-performance top-gate bottom-contact flexible field-effect polymer transistors (FETs) fabricated by blade-coating of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymers (P(DPP2DT-T2), P(DPP2DT-TT), P(DPP2DT-DTT), P(NDI2OD-T2), P(NDI2OD-F2T2), and P(NDI2OD-Se2)) as the semiconducting channel materials. All the polymers displayed good FET characteristics. The highest hole mobility of 1.51 cm2V-1s-1 and the highest electron mobility of 0.85 cm2V-1s-1 were obtained from P(DPP2DT-T2) and P(NDI2OD-Se2) polymer FETs, respectively. The on/off ratios exceeded 107 for both the cases. Note that, to the best of our knowledge, both values are record carrier mobilities among solution-processed flexible polymer FETs. The impacts of polymer structures on the FET performance are well explained by the features of crystallinity, edge-on orientation tendency, and interconnectivity of polymer fibrils in the film state. Additionally, we demonstrated that all the polymer-based flexible FETs were highly resistent to tensile stress with negligible change of carrier mobilities and on/off ratios in a bending test. Conclusively, we present high-performance flexible durable FETs, demonstrating high potentials of semiconducting conjugated polymers for use in the flexible electronic applications.

Authors : Qiaoming Zhang, Francesca Leonardi, Stefano Casalini, Marta Mas-Torrent
Affiliations : Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and CIBER-BBN, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra, 08193, Spain.

Resume : In the last decade many groups have demonstrated the potential application of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) as future sensor platforms. When a metal wire is placed on top of the device and an electrolyte acts as ionic conductor, field effect modulation could easily take place thanks to the high capacitance (several µF/cm2) at the electrolyte/organic semiconductor interface. [1] In recent years, many groups succeeded in the creation of sensors where the incorporation of a proper biological element has turn EGOFET into a real ultrasensitive transducer. [2][3] However, one of the main challenging aspects relies on the stability of such platforms which often suffer of poor robustness. Here we present a new class of EGOFETs based on an organic semiconductor (OSC): insulating polymer (IP) blends as active material. The deposition technique, called Bar-Assisted Meniscus Shearing (BAMS), could be use with a wide combination of inks and the whole process results in the formation of a crystalline and homogeneous thin-film. [4] Our work has evidenced impressive transistors performances, good potentiometric sensitivity and optimal switching speed but, the main advantage relies on the unprecedented robustness of EGOFETs under continuous electrical stress. Achieving this goal demonstrated the realization of state of the art devices through a roll-to-roll compatible technique and our work added three new semiconductor formulations to EGOFET panorama. [5][6] However, the actual knowledge about EGOFETs lacks of a complete understanding of the physical processes that govern the interaction of an organic semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte. Recently, our group published an interesting paper when an indirect probe, i.e. Hg2 , is exploited for determining the penetration degree of an electrolyte medium deposited on top of an EGOFET device. Comparing the electrical characteristics recorded with a standard bottom gate with the electrolyte gated ones, shows how mercury cations are able to penetrate through the first nanometers of the thin-film and to affect exclusively the upper transport channel whereas the bottom one remains unaltered. [7] Furthermore, this unique platform has revealed a preferential interaction to this toxic cation turning the EGOFET into a device able to detect this harmful agent. References: [1] Kergoat, L. et al.Adv. Mater., 22, 2565 -2569, (2010). [2] Casalini, S. et al.,Org. Electron., 14, 156–163, (2013). [3] Mulla, M. Y. et al., Nat. Commun., 6, 6010, (2015). [4] Temiño, I. et al. Adv. Mater. Technol., 1, 1600090, (2016). [5] Leonardi, F. et al. Adv. Mater., 28, 10311–10316, (2016). [6] Zhang, Q., et al., Sci. Rep., 6, 39623, (2016). [7] Zhang, Q. et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 27, 1703899 (2017).

Authors : Zhelu Hu, Hengyang Xiang, Mathilde Schoenauer Sebag, Laurent Billot, Lionel Aigouy, and Zhuoying Chen
Affiliations : LPEM, ESPCI Paris, PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, CNRS,

Resume : Mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskites based on FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3 is currently of particular interest due to its suitable band gap allowing its immediate application on silicon solar cells by a tandem strategy. So far, solar cells based on FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3 involve the use of two layers of electron transporting materials. Despite the high photovoltaic performance achieved, more simplified device structure is desirable towards large-scale and low-cost fabrication. In this work, by controlling the concentration of the perovskite precursor we achieve thickness-tunable compact FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3 perovskite thin films on FTO substrates with a large grain size up to 12 microns. They are then employed to fabricate solar cells with a simplified planar structure without the use of electron-transport (ETL) layers. Functional ETL-free FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3 perovskite solar cells are obtained exhibiting a PCE of 13.79% and prolonged stability, which is highly encouraging for the future large-scale fabrication of FA0.83Cs0.17Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3-based solar cells.

Authors : Satyajit Roy,1 Suman Mandal,1 Arnab Ghosh,1 Ajay Mandal,1 Sudarshan Singh,1 Rup Chowdhury, 1 M. K. Mukhopadhyay,3 S. K. Ray,1,4 Dipak K. Goswami1,2
Affiliations : 1 Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India. 2 School of Nano-Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India. 3 Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064, India. 4 S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata, India

Resume : An organic-inorganic hybrid photodiode structure has been realized using tin naphthalocyanine dichloride (SnNcCl2) as a single organic component electron donor material on p-Si substrates. SnNcCl2 films were grown by thermal sublimation under high vacuum condition (at 10-7 mbar) using molecular beam deposition (OMBD) technique. The growth mechanism of SnNcCl2 films has been studied as a function of substrate temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR). The bias dependent external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement of a typical device exhibited two broad peaks extending from 400 nm to 700 nm and 900 to 1100 nm with maximum responsivities of 0.21 A/W at 560 nm and 0.15 A/W at 980 nm at –6 V bias. The observed results demonstrated the capability of the devices to be used as a broadband photodetector in visible to NIR wavelength range. All the combined results of optical studies such as ground state absorption spectroscopy, photo luminescence (PL) spectroscopy and ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (UTAS) confirmed the generation of triplet excitons. Moreover, It is established that the free charge carriers generated due to dissociation of triplet excitons are responsible in achieving high EQE in mid-visible range around 550 nm. Finally, a broad photo-response from 300 nm to 1100 nm with E.Q.E and detectivity greater than 50 % and 1012 jones, respectively, throughout the region has been achieved at –4 V bias by co-evaporating PTCDI-C8 with SnNcCl2 on textured p-Si substrates. The peak responsivity of the ultra-broadband device showed a typical value of 0.6 A/W at around 980 nm which is better than earlier reports.

Authors : M. Mainville, E. Soligo, T. Bura, M. Leclerc
Affiliations : Université Laval

Resume : Conjugated polymers are widely used in material sciences, from organic-field effect transistors (OFETs) to polymer solar cells (PSCs) and organic light-emitting diodes. This is possible due to the ability to fine-tune the optoelectronic properties of semi-conducting polymers. It has been shown that the incorporation of a fluorine atom in the polymer backbone is an efficient way to stabilize the HOMO and LUMO levels and reduce the bandgap of conjugated polymers. Furthermore, due to non-covalent interactions of the fluorine moiety, we observe increased of the π - π stacking of the material, which generally leads to greater charge mobility. Indeed, fluorinated polymers are among the best for PSCs, with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. In this study, we developed a new series of copolymers and terpolymers based on fluorinated dithienyldiketopyrrolopyrrole (fDPP) units for applications in PSCs and OFETs.[1] Moreover, we synthesized the nitrile homologue, where the nitrile replaces the fluorine moiety, to compare the effect of the electron-withdrawing functional group on the optoelectronic properties of the resulting material. Results show polymers with deeper conductive and valence band, which lead to a higher open-circuit voltage in photovoltaic devices. These results help to better understand the role of fluorination on the properties and performances of conjugated polymers in organic electronic applications. [1] Bura, T. et al., Macromolecules 2017, 50, 7080

Authors : Suman Mandal1*, Satyajit Roy1, Ajoy Mandal1, Arnab Ghosh1, Biswarup Satpati2, Madhuchandra Banerjee3, Dipak Kumar Goswami1,4
Affiliations : * Presenting Auther 1-Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur – 721302, India. 2-Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064, India. 3 - Midnapore College, Department of Zoology, Midnapore - 721101, India. 4 - School of Nanoscience and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur – 721302, India.

Resume : The design simplicity, lager areal integration to the integrated circuit and amplification the capability of inferior signal make organic field effect transistors (OFETs) are more engaging for physical, chemical or biological sensing applications, where active and dielectric materials are chosen in such a way that one of them or both are sensitive to a specific stimulus and the immediate effect of it can be extracted easily. In this work, we are going to present flexible OFETs based temperature sensor suitable for wearable medical applications. Here we have used Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and strontium titanate (STO) to make a suitable bilayer dielectric system where strontium titanate (STO) film used as temperature sensitive materials. Low-cost solution process has been used to prepare STO based dielectric ink. This ink can be spin coated or screen printed on top of Al 2 O 3 layer to make suitable bilayer dielectric combination. We have fabricated OFETs on top of ultra-thin (10 m) flexible substrate which is working around 1.2V with the highest observed mobility of 1.4 cm 2 /Vs. The temperature sensing properties in these devices have been attributed to the variation of capacitance of our bilayer dielectric system with temperature. As temperature increases, the capacitance of the dielectric system increases. As a result, the charge accumulation at the dielectric/semiconductor interfaces enhances due to the applied gate field and also enhances the sensitivity of temperature measurement. We have found the response and recovery time of our device 400 ms and 580 ms, respectively. The devices were tested to monitor the changes in body temperature of mice under anaesthesia doses. The sensitivity measured in these devices is about 5 milli-Kelvin.

Authors : Antonio Campos, Sergi Galindo, Qiaoming Zhang, Ajayakumar M. Rathamony, Francesca Leonardi, Joaquim Puigdollers, Marta Mas-Torrent
Affiliations : Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, 08193 Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, 08193 Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, 08193 Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, 08193 Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, 08193 Barcelona, Spain ; Dept. Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, 08034, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) and Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Cerdanyola, 08193 Barcelona, Spain

Resume : Nowadays, there is much effort focused on the improvement of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) performance due to their high potential as new devices for low-cost and flexible electronics. The improvement of OFETs performance and stability have been widely discussed and it remains a current challenge.[1] Recently, the blending of the organic semiconductor (OSC) with an insulating polymer has been shown to be a promising route to improve the OFETs performance.[2] However, it is crucial to understand the physical phenomena behind it better so we can optimize the fabrication processes. In the present work, a p-type (DPTTA)[3] and a n-type (PDI8CN2)[4] OSCs have been blended with an insulating polymer (PS) and integrated in OFETs. The devices were fully characterized morphologically and electrically, including the calculation of the density of traps. In both cases, it was observed that a lower density of traps was achieved when the PS matrix was employed due to a vertical phase separation of the two materials during the crystallization process. This was in agreement also with the results obtained from a bias stress stability study and the extraction of the density-of-states (DoS). The study concludes hence that the OSC/dielectric interface is much better in the blended materials, obtaining better subthreshold swing and threshold voltage, due to the fact that the PS layer prevents the direct contact of the OSC with the SiO2. References: [1] H. Sirringhaus, Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 3859. [2] K. Zhao et al. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2016, 26, 1737. [3] A. Campos et al. Adv. Electron. Mater. 2017, 1700349.. [4] B. A. Jones et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 15259.

Authors : Ye Wang, Amine Slassi, Jerome Cornil, David Beljonne, Simone Bertolazzi, Paolo Samorì
Affiliations : Institut de science et d'ingénierie supramoléculaires, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS, 8 Allee Gaspard Monge, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux & Centre d'Innovation et de Recherche en Matériaux Polymères, Université de Mons - UMONS / Materia Nova, Place du Parc, 20, 7000, Mons, Belgium; Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux & Centre d'Innovation et de Recherche en Matériaux Polymères, Université de Mons - UMONS / Materia Nova, Place du Parc, 20, 7000, Mons, Belgium; Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux & Centre d'Innovation et de Recherche en Matériaux Polymères, Université de Mons - UMONS / Materia Nova, Place du Parc, 20, 7000, Mons, Belgium; Institut de science et d'ingénierie supramoléculaires, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS, 8 Allee Gaspard Monge, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Institut de science et d'ingénierie supramoléculaires, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS, 8 Allee Gaspard Monge, 67000 Strasbourg, France;

Resume : Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted great attention for potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics, sensing, etc. Among them, monolayer MoS2 is one of the most investigated materials and many approaches have been explored for tuning its electrical and optical properties. In our work, we have studied the effect of a series of benzene derivatives on both mechanically exfoliated and CVD-grown monolayer MoS2. Our photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies revealed that physisorbed benzene derivatives influence the fraction of charged (trion) and neutral exciton by surface charge transfer depending on their functional groups and dipoles. DFT calculations confirmed that fluorinated aromatic molecules lead to p-doping in monolayer MoS2 whereas methyl-substituted ones induce n-doping, which is in accordance to experimental data. We have observed in the corresponding field-effect transistor (FET) devices that as-investigated aromatic molecules have produced changes in charge carrier density, charge carrier mobility, threshold voltage, on/off ratio and transfer hysteresis. Our study has demonstrated versatile routes to tune the optical and electrical properties of TMDs, opening intriguing perspectives for various applications in opto-electronics.

Authors : Zhicong Zhang
Affiliations : no

Resume : Organic semiconductor: Hybrid interface and charge transport Scientists have shown improved interesting in semiconductor due to its functional properties in last several decades. Semiconductor can be used in various industries including solar cell, photovoltaic, computer chips and others important applications. hence organic semiconductor becomes an important field of research due to its potential1. Compared to inorganic semiconductor, organic semiconductor has better light harvesting ability2, in the other word, photovoltaic device can be manufactured in thinner form1. What is more, organic semiconductor is more flexible compared to the inorganic semiconductor. Narrow bandgap material is desired for photovoltaic device which will discuss more in detail in the following part) and the narrow bandgap can be achieved by synthesis conjugated polymer/molecules3. People thus have improving interesting in researching organic semiconductor. Charge transport in organic semiconductor is different from the inorganic semiconductor. Organic semiconductor is basically comprised by series conjugated polymers/molecules (which contained carbon and hydrogen atoms). Such Polymers/molecules are made up by linear series of overlapping pz orbitals with sp2 or sp hybridization, then conjugated chain of delocalized electrons are created4. Charge carriers move freely in the backbones; however, it is hard for the charged transport between adjacent polymer since it was precluded by the van de waal force1,5. Organic semiconductor is thus having lower mobility than the inorganic semiconductor; Low mobility may cause combination of electrons and hole which make the photovoltaic device inefficient6. What is more, organic semiconductor charge carriers transport by hopping between adjacent polymer. The energy gap in conjugated molecules is typically 1.5-3.0 eV7, charge transport happens when the active energy is above the energy gap. Furthermore, smaller band gap allows carrier transport easier in organic semiconductor; Because it is easier for charge carrier jump from HOMO to LUMO. Thereby low bandgap polymer for organic semiconductor is an attractive field to be researched. • Energy gap tuning Theoretically, bandgap can be narrowed by increasing the length of conjugated polymer or fusing more aromatic rings in the polymer backbone1. However, such methods become ineffective once the length of polymer exceed certain point. There are two chemical ways that are mainly used to shrink the bandgap (a)stabilizing the quinoid resonance structure and (b) utilizing donor−acceptor interactions8. There are two resonance structures including quinoid and aromatic. Bandgap can be shrunk by both structure; however, quinoid can shrink the bandgap more than aromatic, meanwhile, quinoid structure is relatedly unstable compared to the aromatic1. But research has revealed that quinoid structure can be stabilized by fuse aromatic rings into the polymers9. In case of utilizing donor and acceptor interaction approach, the mechanism of such approach. When the alternative acceptor and donor was synthesized, two LUMO are interacted each other and new LUMO is generated; New HOMO is generated in the same way. New bandgap is then created and smaller than the old bandgap. • Organic heterojunction Organic heterojunction is where the absorption layers, consisted of donor and acceptor material. Such multiple layers determine act of the excitons (electrons-hole pair). In the organic semiconductor device, photons are absorbed within heterojunction, creating excitons. Excitons are separated into charge carriers within he heterojunction. Hence, combination of donor and acceptor polymer have significant effect on the conversion coefficient of photon into photoelectrons. In this case, fine nanostructure of the heterojunction is required. Interfacial charge recombination happen within the heterojunction and it can be reduced by larger domains. Larger domains enable more ordered molecular packing as well, hence development of charge carrier mobilities10. • Hybrid interface Hybrid interface attract researcher attention as well due to its mechanical flexibility and photosensitivity. Hybrid interface can be used to improve the light absorption efficiency and the electron conductivity, which may has significant effect on the semiconductor performance. ZnO is one of the common material that used in semiconductor interface. Nano-ridge patterning of ZnO in an inverted polymer solar cell was shown to improve the power conversion efficiency by almost 25% compared to planar ZnO nanoparticle based films11. Such a patterning strategy increases the interfacial area for electron collection. However, ZnO may cause electron inhomogeneity, which often mitigated by modifying the surface or apply buffer layer between the ZnO film and active layer of semiconductor12. Reference 1. Letian Dou, Yongsheng Liu, Ziruo Hong, Gang Li, and Yang Yang. (2015) Low-Bandgap Near-IR Conjugated Polymers/Molecules for Organic,Electronics. Chemical reviews. 115(23), 12633-12655. Available from [Accessed in 01/12/2017] 2. Brabec, J.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Hummelen, J. C. Plastic Solar Cells. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2001, 11, 15−26 3. Sun, S.-S.; Dalton, L. R. Introduction to Organic Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices; CRC Press: New York, 2008. 4. Pope, M.; Swenberg, C. E, (1999). Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers; Oxford Univ.: UK. 5. Köhler; Bässler (2012). "Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors". Topics in Current Chemistry. 312: 1. 6. Kok Haw Ong, (2010). LOW BAND-GAP DONOR POLYMERS FOR ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS. Dept. of chemistry, Imperial College. 7. Wood, Sebastian, (2014). Directly Probing Thin Film Morphology - Optoelectronic Property Relationships in Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells. Dept. of physics, Imperial College. 8. Havinga, E. E.; Hoeve, W.; Wynberg, H. Alternate donoracceptor small-band-gap semiconducting polymers; Polysquaraines and polycroconaines. Synth. Met. 1993, 55, 299−306. 9. Wudl, F.; Kobayashi, M.; Heeger, A. J. Poly(isothianaphthene). J. Org. Chem. 1984, 49, 3382−3384. 10. Ji-Seon Kim and Martin Heeney, (2015). High-Performance Organic Near-IR Photodetectors via Advanced Molecular Structure Control and Analysis 11. N. Sekine, C.-H. Chou, W.L. Kwan, Y. Yang, ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell, Org. Electron., 10 (2009), pp. 1473-1477 12. R. Shivanna, S. Rajaram, K.S. NarayanInterface engineering for efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells, Appl. Phys. Lett., 106 (2015), p. 123301

Authors : Hyeon-pil Joo¹*, Kook-Jin Lee¹, Wung-yeon Kim¹, Hyun-jeong Kim¹, Jun-Hee Choi¹, In-Yeob Na², Il-Hoo Park¹, Song-eun Lee³, Young-Kwan Kim³ and Gyu-Tae Kim¹ *E-mail :
Affiliations : ¹School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea ²School of Micro/Nano System, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea ³Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 04066, South Korea

Resume : The degradation of organic light emitting diodes(OLEDs) at the elevated temperatures or with temperature changes have been reported. However, in the real operation, these experiments cannot explain the degree of degradation of the devices accurately, because, the local temperatures of each cell of OLED display panels change with irregular periods. For simulating the real changes of the operating conditions, the degree and the pattern of degradation of OLED devices were analyzed by changing the period of temperature with irregularities. We induced irregular local temperatures by applying the the irregularly defined current traces to the OLED cells. Based on the analyzed data, we predicted the life time and the reliability of the performance of the devices with machine-learning algorithm.

Authors : Juliete Le Caillec, Paul Wilde, Saif A Haque
Affiliations : Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London

Resume : Solar cells have obtained more and more attention over time, with many studies focusing on increasing the power conversion efficiency of the materials used, among other factors. Interest has also turned towards minimising the degradation of the solar cells to increase their potential use. More recent studies looking at perovskite solar cells have shown that there is formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when the material is exposed to light and oxygen. This is in large part responsible for the degradation observed in perovskite materials and solar cells [1,2]. However, the generation and role of ROS in the potential degradation of organic materials such as semiconducting polymers has not been addressed. This study will focus on the ROS superoxide, and its generation from various materials used within organic solar cells. Moreover, we will explore the effect of energetics and film morphology on the yield of superoxide generation. The goal is to study to potential correlation between the structure of the polymer material, the superoxide yield and the polymer semiconductor film’s overall stability. The results from this study are intended to facilitate and advance the use of such materials in a range of applications (e.g. optoelectronic, solar cells, and medicinal). 1.N. Aristidou, C. Eames, I. Sanchez-Molina, X. Bu, J. Kosco, M. Islam and S. Haque, Nature Communications, 2017, 8, 15218. 2.N. Aristidou, I. Sanchez-Molina, T. Chotchuangchutchaval, M. Brown, L. Martinez, T. Rath and S. Haque, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2015, 54, 8208-8212.

Authors : M.-A. Stoeckel(1), M. C. Momblona Rincón(2), M. Gobbi(1), M. Nardi(3), L. Pasquali(3), M. Sessolo(2), H. Bolink(2), E. Orgiu(1,4), P. Samorì(1)
Affiliations : (1)Institut de Science et d’Ingénierie Supramoléculaires (I.S.I.S.), 8 allée Gaspard Monge, 67083 Strasbourg, France; (2)Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Catedrático José Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, Spain; (3)Dept. Of Engineering E.Ferrari, Via Vivarelli 10, 41125 Modena, Italy; (4)INRS-Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, 1650 Blv. Lionel-Boulet, J3X 1S2 Varennes (Québec)

Resume : Organo-metallic hybrid perovskite materials are unique materials that feature extremely high power conversion efficiency, therefore holding great promise for low-cost and up-scalable device applications in opto-electronics.[1] However, the charge injection mechanism in such material is not fully understood and a comprehensive picture of its origin is lacking.[2,3] Field-effect devices based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) were fabricated in which the source and drain electrodes are treated with different self-assembled monolayers. The different SAMs chemisorbed on the electrodes allow us to explore the dependence of the electrical performances from chemical composition, morphology and energy levels at the interface. The electrical performance of the perovskite was found to be strongly correlated with the wettability of the sample and the deposition technique employed. [1] X. Li, D. Bi, C. Yi, J.-D. Décoppet, J. Luo, S. M. Zakeeruddin, A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, Science 2016, 58. [2] S. P. Senanayak, B. Yang, T. H. Thomas, N. Giesbrecht, W. Huang, E. Gann, B. Nair, K. Goedel, S. Guha, X. Moya, C. R. McNeill, P. Docampo, A. Sadhanala, R. H. Friend, H. Sirringhaus, Sci. Adv. 2017, 3, e1601935. [3] S. Olthof, K. Meerholz, Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 40267.

Authors : Jinwoo Nam, Jongseol Jeon, Seon-mi Jin and Eunji Lee*
Affiliations : Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea

Resume : Nano-heterojunction wires composed of organic conjugated polymers and inorganic quantum dots can be applied to the optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, and photovoltaics. The charge separation and transport dynamics have been investigated as a function of the shape and size of the quantum nanoparticles including dots, rods, and tetrapods. However, the location and further orientation of quantum nanoparticles along to the nanowire longitudinal axis has not been rarely reported. In this study, the CdSe quantum nanorods confined in crystallization-driven self-assembled nanowires was controlled by changing the solution processing. The gradually diffusion of poor solvent at top layer into good solvent containing conjugated polymers and quantum rods at bottom layer showed the different orientations of nanorod as well as the lengths of hybrid nanowires, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy tomography, and correlated grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. This research might provide a useful strategy for the fabrication of hybrid nano-heterojunction wires with customized performance in optoelectronic device.

Authors : Yu Jung Park1, Myoung Joo Cha1, Yung Jin Yoon2, Shinuk Cho3, Jin Young Kim3, Jung Hwa Seo1,* and Bright Walker2*
Affiliations : 1 Department of Materials Physics Dong-A University; 2 School of Energy and Chemical Engineering Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology; 3 Department of Physics and EHSRC University of Ulsan

Resume : To enhance electron injection in n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), nonconjugated polyelectrolyte (NPE) layers are interposed between a [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer and Au electrodes. A series of NPEs based on an ethoxylated polyethylenimine backbone with various counterions, including Cl−, Br−, and I−, improve electron mobilities up to ≈10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and yield on–off ratios (Ion/Ioff) of 105 in PCBM OFETs. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that all of the NPEs lead to reduced electron injection barriers (φe) at the NPE/metal interface; this reduction in φe is consistent with dipole formation or n-type doping at the electrode interface. Absorption measurements of PCBM films treated with NPEs are consistent with n-doping of the PCBM. Regardless of the type of anion, thick NPE layers lead to high conductivity in the films independent of gate bias, whereas thin NPE layers lead to dramatically improved electron injection and performance. These results demonstrate that thin polyelectrolyte layers can be used to achieve controlled interfacial doping in organic semiconductors. Furthermore, this study provides valuable information about the function of NPEs, which may be exploited to improve device performance and to design new materials for future use in optoelectronic devices.

Authors : Cheolmin Lee, Dasom Jeon, Sanghyun Bae, Hyunwoo Kim, Yujin Han, and Jungki Ryu*
Affiliations : Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) 50 UNIST-gil, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea. (all authors)

Resume : Solar water oxidation is a promising but challenging technology. Albeit its conceptual simplicity, there remain many problems for its practical application originating from intrinsic limitations of candidate materials. While inorganic materials generally have better electrical/ electrochemical properties than organic materials, they also suffer from issues of low extinction coefficient (EC) and fast recombination of excitons. In contrast, organic materials have a much higher EC in the visible light region and more functional diversity. Conventionally, however, most efforts have been devoted to the utilization of inorganic materials for solar water oxidation. In this study, we report the fabrication of efficient photoanode for solar water oxidation by hybridization of organic and inorganic materials. More specifically, we could fabricate an organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanode by deposition of semiconducting melanin doped with polyoxometalate on an n-type inorganic semiconductor. The resultant hybrid photoanode exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance due to the improved light-harvesting, charge separation, and catalytic charge transfer efficiencies through hybridization. More importantly, our approach was found to be applicable to various inorganic semiconductors, such as TiO2, Fe2O3, and BiVO4. We believe that this study can provide inspiration for the design and fabrication of novel organic/inorganic hybrid devices.

Authors : Suman Nandy*, Sumita Goswami, Rodrigo Martins, Elvira Fortunato
Affiliations : i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Resume : Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most investigated conjugated polymers because of its high environmental stability and unique electronic properties. The excellent properties of π-electron delocalization at the backbone of such conjugate polymer can be an initiator of charge transfer mechanism with carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) resulting oxidation-resistance. Thus, the unique combination of these two has ability to expand a class of novel composite materials having synergic charge transfer effect as well as tunibility of their properties through rational chemical synthesis. Our experimental findings impart a new possibility for ‘writing-reading’ of memory bits using electrical bias towards the application in polymeric data storage devices. CNPs have been deployed into the polymeric matrix as charge trapping sites, which has been functioned to the concept of non-destructive “electro-typing” nanoscopic data sheet. The core idea of this device is to make an electrical image through charge trapping mechanism, which can be ‘read’ further by the subsequent electrical mapping. The density of stored charges at the carbon-polyaniline layer, near the metal/polymer interface, has been found to depend on the amount of injected charge carriers. Work has been demonstrated through an understanding and specific investigation on the dynamics of localized electronic transport mechanism of CNPs-PANI composite layer using atomic force microscopy integrated with different kinds of electrical mode.

Authors : K.H. Chan, S.M. Ng, H.F. Wong, C.W. Leung, C.L. Mak
Affiliations : Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People?s Republic of China

Resume : Recently, p-n junctions based on organic and 2D materials have been recognized as the easiest way to fabricate hybrid 2D van der Waals heterojunction devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Depositing organic materials on 2D materials is typically demonstrated by thermal evaporation that high voltage and vacuum systems are needed. In the present work, we present a simple way to fabricate p-organic/n-2D heterostructure, where Pedot:PSS was chosen to be the p-organic material due to its high conductivity, excellent film forming ability and good stability, while WS2 was chosen as the n-2D material due to its well-known properties. By systematically studying the gate dependence and temperature dependence of I-V characteristics of the Pedot:PSS/WS2 junction, it was found that the device showed a diode-like behavior with rectification ratio of ~5 and a turn on voltage of ~1V at room temperature. Furthermore, the rectification ratio of the junction reached up to ~103 at Vg=20V with Vds ranging from -4 to 4V. The maximum rectification ratio decreased with reducing temperature. On the basis of our results, we demonstrate that the simple technique introduced in our fabrication of organic/2D van der Waals heterojunction could extend to include other organics and 2D materials.

Authors : Myung Joo Cha, Yu Jung Park, Ju Hwan Kang and Jung Hwa Seo
Affiliations : Dong-A university

Resume : The electronic properties of the interface formed between Au and organometallic triiodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) were investigated using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared onto the Au surfaces by spin casting with various solution concentrations to control the film thickness and their morphology was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CH3NH3PbI3 film exhibited a band gap of 1.70 eV and the maximum valence band edge of 6.31 eV. The energy levels shift downward by 0.26 eV with a perovskite coverage of 50 wt% upon it, indicating the band bending at the interface. The observed energy level shift means the presence of the interface dipole exists at the Au/CH3NH3PbI3 interface. These findings are important for understanding how the perovskite materials function in electronic devices, and the design of new materials for use in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

Authors : Hao-Yu Phua, Peter Ho
Affiliations : National University of Singapore

Resume : Morphology stabilization of polymer donor acceptor solar cells is key to achieving high reproducibility and reliability for fundamental studies and technological applications. Morphology-stabilized crosslinked1 polymer donor network cells infiltrated with fullerene acceptors has been reported to give the desired donor-acceptor morphology with built-in phase contiguity.2 For the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester donor-acceptor model system, this enables full mapping of the PCE, FF, Jsc, Voc vs composition – thickness landscape, and first direct experimental determination of cell built-in potential.3 Improvement in power conversion efficiency over the standard remixed biblend devices has also been achieved. However, questions about generality of this approach to current state-of-the-art photoactive layers remains unanswered. In this talk, we will discuss our recent work on rational design for acceptor infiltration, applicability to non-fullerene acceptors, and systematic in-situ investigations of crosslinked polymer donor – acceptor – solvent interactions. 1. R.Q. Png, P.J. Chia, J.C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.H. Khong, H.S.O. Chan, J.H. Burroughes, L.L. Chua, R.H. Friend, P.K.H. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains”, Nature Materials 9, 152 (2010). 2. B. Liu, R.Q. Png, L.H. Zhao, L.L. Chua, R.H. Friend, P.K.H. Ho, “High internal quantum efficiency in fullerene solar cells based on crosslinked polymer donor networks”, Nature Communications 3, 1321 (2012). 3. B. Liu, R.Q. Png, J.K. Tan, P.K.H. Ho, “Evaluation of built-in potential and loss mechanisms at contacts in organic solar cells: device model parameterization, validation and prediction”, Advanced Energy Materials 4, 1200972 (2014).

Authors : L. Perdigón-Toro, Y. Yang, E. Collado-Fregoso, H. Ade and D. Neher
Affiliations : University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Germany; Department of Physics and ORaCEL, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA

Resume : Organic solar cells consist of blends of two or more semiconductors with different electronic structures, namely organic electron donors and acceptors. The morphology of the blend can vary significantly depending on numerous conditions, such as the nature of the materials or the processing, and can be crucial for the overall device efficiency. When employing an amorphous polymer and small molecules such as fullerenes, the morphology comprises at least two phases: one phase nearly pure in fullerenes and a second where the macromolecules and fullerenes are intimately intermixed. The initial polymer:fullerene ratio and the annealing temperature play deciding roles on the final composition of these two phases. Recent work suggested a unique dependence of the fill factor of solar cells on the different compositions of such binary blends[1]. In this work, we use the reference system PCDTBT:PC71BM to prepare binary blends with varying composition, ranging from a well-separated blend to a one phase system. Devices annealed above the critical temperature exhibit much lower fill factors, pointing to significantly increased geminate and/or non-geminate recombination. Various techniques such as bias assisted charge extraction (BACE) and time delayed collection field (TDCF) are employed to disentangle these processes, and to understand their outcome in terms of field-assisted charge generation and extraction. [1] Ye, L. et al. Nature Materials, in press.

Authors : Simon Pfaehler, Arzu Angı, Bernhard Rieger, Marc Tornow
Affiliations : Simon Pfaehler: Molecular Electronics, Technische Universität München, Germany; Arzu Angı: WACKER-Lehrstuhl für Makromolekulare Chemie, Technische Universität München, Germany; Bernhard Rieger: WACKER-Lehrstuhl für Makromolekulare Chemie, Technische Universität München, Germany; Marc Tornow: Molecular Electronics, Technische Universität München, Germany;

Resume : Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) have gained great interest due to their outstanding optoelectronic properties, compared to their bulk counterpart. However, on the way to electrical device applications, it is necessary to thoroughly understand the electronic charge transport in thin films of SiNCs. Here we describe the fabrication and electrical characterization of Si nanogap electrode devices to study the electronic properties of hexyl functionalized SiNCs of diameter 3 nm. Planar, highly doped Si electrodes with contact separation down to 30 nm were fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates, by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These nanogaps were filled by mechanically pressing the SiNCs from solution via a pressure-transducing PDMS membrane. This novel approach enables the formation of homogeneous SiNC thin films with precise control of the thickness, without voids or cracks in-between the Si electrodes, leading to stable and reproducible device performance. Conductance was significantly enhanced for devices featuring thin films of functionalized SiNCs in 100 nm nanogaps, compared to an untreated device. Importantly, the measured conductance showed the anticipated scaling with nanogap width, ranging from 5 to 50 µm in size. We propose our device scheme as prototype for charge transport investigations of novel hybrid nanomaterials at the nanoscale, involving all-silicon contact electrodes.

Authors : Claire Greenland, Sai Rajendran, Onkar Gaame, David Lidzey
Affiliations : University of Sheffield; University of St. Andrew's; University of Sheffield; University of Sheffield

Resume : Highly efficient perovskite devices have been demonstrated based on the mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite system (FAPbI3) 1-x (MABr)x , as it allows for band gap tuning and optimisation of optoelectronic properties and stability [1][2]. However there is still much to elucidate regarding the microscopic properties of these materials that contribute to their elevated photovoltaic performance compared to single-cation perovskite systems. The mixed cation perovskite (FAPbI3) 0.85 (MABr)0.15 has been characterized through steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence and through streak camera measurements, over a temperature range from 4 K to 330 K, in order to investigate phase behaviour and charge carrier dynamics in this material. Previous work on the widely studied perovskite MAPbI3 has shown that the monomolecular decay rate, which is attributed to trap-assisted recombination in such materials, decreases as the temperature is reduced due to the passivation of trap states, whereas the higher order bimolecular and Auger recombination rates increase [3]. Preliminary results show similar trends in the mixed-cation mixed-halide perovskite, but with some key differences in the dynamics within each structural phase. The data also provides experimental evidence for the phase transition temperatures of this mixed-cation perovskite system, with the tetragonal to cubic phase transition occurring below room temperature. [1] Jeon et al. Nature, 2015, 517, 476 [2] Baena et al. Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2928 [3] Milot et al. Adv. Func. Mater., 2015, 25, 6218

Authors : Paula Beatriz Oshiro,*1 Bruna Andressa Bregadiolli1 and Luiz Carlos da Silva-Filho1
Affiliations : 1Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences (FC), São Paulo State University (UNESP) – Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, *

Resume : Coumarin are an class of natural products with diverse biological activities. They have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antibiotic and antimicrobial.1 The use of coumarin in the area of new materials has arisen the interest of research groups, the possibility of its use as sensitizing dyes in solar cells. Coumarins absorb strongly in the visible region, so they have a great chance of being good sensitizers for semiconductors with wide band gap, another factor is due to these compounds possess high quantum yield fluorescence.2 Among the methods of coumarin synthesis described in the literature we can cite the reaction of Knoevenagel, Pechmann and Perkin.3 Our research group developed a method of synthesis of coumarin derivatives by multicomponent reaction (MCR).4 In this work, we described the synthesis of dyes by MCR between 4-aminocoumarin, aldehyde derivatives and ethyl benzoylacetate, catalyzed by Lewis acids. The reaction occurs in the presence of NbCl5, AlCl3, POCl3, FeCl3 or ZrCl4, in N2, under reflux, in DCM, DCE, CAN, MeOH or THF for 5, 24 or 48h. The results show that by using NbCl5, for 24h and DCE, it was possible to obtain coumarin derivative with moderate yields. [1] J-C. Jung, O-S. Park, Molecules, 2009, 14, 4790 [2] X. Liu, J. M. Cole, P. G. Waddell, T. C. Lin, J. Radia, A. Zeidler, J. Phys.Chem.A, 2012, 116, 727 [3] H. Valizadeh, A. Shockravi, Tetrahedron Lett., 2005, 46, 3501 [4] W. H. dos Santos, L. C. da Silva-Filho, Synthesis, 2012, 44, 3361

Authors : J.R. Sanchez-Valencia,*(a,b) F.J. Aparicio,(a) J. Idigoras,(c) V. Lopez-Flores,(a) J. Obrero,(a) A. Borras,(a) J.A. Anta,(c) A. Barranco.(a)
Affiliations : (a) Nanotechnology on Surfaces Laboratory, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (ICMS, CSIC-US), C/ Américo Vespucio 49, 41092, Spain (b) Dep. Fisica Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear. Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, 41012, Sevilla, Spain (c) Área de Química Física, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, E-41013, Spain.

Resume : Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as one of the most promising technologies for efficient and cheap solar cells.[1] The research in this type of solar cells suffered an inflexion point when the liquid electrolyte was replaced by solid state hole conductors (SSHC) which increased significantly the PCE and stability of the devices. [2] From this moment on, most of the research on perovskite based solar cells makes use of SSHC which the first and most used material is the organic molecule spiro-OMeTAD. While the use of Spiro-OMeTAD is widely spread, this material is reported to have a low intrinsic hole mobility and conductivity, that is partially solved by means of dopants or molecular modifications. In this work we present solution process perovskite based solar cells, in which the hole conductor material (Spiro-OMeTAD) has been deposited by vacuum sublimation in absence of any dopant. Surprisingly, the control in the deposition parameters of pristine Spiro-OMeTAD permits to significantly enhance the solar cell efficiency, reaching values up to 8.5% of PCE, a remarkable high value for such an undoped SSHC. 1 Ansari, M.I. et al. J. Photochem. Photobiol., C, 35 (2018) 1 2 Kim, H.-S. et al. Sci. Rep. 2, (2012) 591 3 Leijtens, T. et al. Adv. Mater. 25 (2013) 3227. 4 Nguyen, W.H. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 (2014) 10996

Authors : Bruna A Bregadiolli1, Paula B Oshiro2, Luiz Carlos da Silva-Filho2, Alan Sellinger3, Maria A Zaghete1
Affiliations : 1 - São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Chemistry, Araraquara 2 - São Paulo State University (UNESP), POSMAT, Bauru-SP, Brazil; 3 - Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemistry and Materials Program, Golden-CO, United States

Resume : Perovskite solar cells have become a very promising technology, with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20%.1 The most common hole transport material (HTM) used in perovskite devices, spiro-O-MeTAD, has been described as a bottleneck to develop inexpensive and stable cells, due its multi-step synthesis and instability to atmospheric oxygen.2 Thus, in this work we have synthesized donor-π-acceptor anchoring groups covalently bonded to reduced graphene oxide for application as HTMs. Thiophene derivatives are used as anchoring ligands on graphene due to their relatively high hole mobility, simple synthesis, and ability to impart solubility. In addition to the good solubility and intrinsic electronic features for the ligand, the π–π interaction between the anchoring groups and graphene could potentially tailor the band gap of graphene. Here, we use ligands with a maximum of 4 thiophene units, in order to avoid aggregation and to guide electron injection.3 These new materials were fully characterized – thermal and optoelectronic properties. The effect of the substituent group according with its electronic properties is studied and electrically characterized. The reaction steps begin with graphene oxide, synthesized by graphite oxidation as an adaptation of Hummers method.4 The formed carboxylic acid groups on the graphene are esterified using diazomethane, followed by the reduction to the corresponding alcohol using LiAlH4. Subsequently, the alcohols are oxidized to aldehyde groups in the presence of DDQ. The aldehyde groups are then converted to Schiff bases promoting the conjugation of the ligand anchoring group with the graphene π system. 1Yang, S., et al, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 11462-11482. 2 Shi, D., et al., Science Advances, 2016. 2(4) e1501491. 3 Mishra, A., et al, Angewandte Chem, 2009. 48(14), p. 2474-2499. 4 Hummers, W.S. and R.E. Offeman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1958. 80(6), 1339-1339.

Authors : Jiankun Han, Luis Lanzetta, Saif Haque
Affiliations : Imperial College London

Resume : Given the rapid development of perovskite-based photovoltaic devices, the main challenge is the toxicity of conventional lead perovskites and the stability of the materials and devices. As what have been proved, low-dimensional lead perovskites exhibit enhanced stability which is favorable from commercial aspect. The removal of toxic lead is by the replacement with tin generally which has more severe sensitivity to oxidative attack and ambient conditions. Combining both the improvements, low-dimensional hybrid tin halide perovskites are investigated for solar cell and light-emitting diodes (LED) applications. However, the spatial confinement and poor film morphology reduce the efficiency of tin perovskite photovoltaic devices and require further study.   Here I will introduce background information about 2D hybrid tin halide perovskites and their application for solar cells and LEDs. Latest work on additional addictive modulated perovskite morphology will also be represented. Moreover current work on alignment of perovskite layers to facilitate charge transport will be included in specific examples.

Authors : S. Iftimie,1 A. Radu,1 V.A. Antohe,1 D. Coman,1 L. Dan,1 L. Ion,1 and S. Antohe1,2
Affiliations : 1University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. BOX MG-11, 077125, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania; 2Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, 030167, Bucharest, Romania

Resume : In this paper we report the fabrication and electrical and photo-electrical characterization of polymeric and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) thin films based photovoltaic cells (PVs). Exploiting the advantage that Chl-a has p-type semiconductor features and can be used as constitutive of both active layer and buffer layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2.5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have physical properties suitable for photovoltaic applications, customized architectures were prepared by spin-coating. The active layer was tailored as P3HT:PCBM + Chl-a (1:1:1) physical mixture, while in order to improve the hole collection to anode the hole selective layer (HSL) was build either as blend between poly(3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(stryrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and Chl-a in 1:1 ratio or as bi-layer structure Chl-a/PEDOT:PSS. Lithium fluoride (LiF) was preferred as electron selective layer (ESL), while indium thin oxide (ITO) and aluminum (Al) were used as front contact and back contact, respectively. The obtained devices were electrical and photo-electrical characterized, and their performances were discussed in terms of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM (1:1)/LiF/Al conventional structures (CS). Parameters characterizing PVs were calculated and discussed, and the results indicate that a customized PEDOT:PSS + Chl-a (4:1) HSL improved with more than 50% the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of fabricated photovoltaic cells, compared with the results of CS. Keywords: chlorophyll-a, P3HT, PCBM, photovoltaic cells

Authors : A. Jamshidi , A. Bahari
Affiliations : Department of Solid State Physics, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, 4741695447, Iran

Resume : The world energy demands for renewable and cheap resources of solar energy have generated a large interest in sensitized solar cell technology due to high power conversion efficiency with low cost of production[1]. Quantum dots (QDs) sensitized solar cell as one type of sensitized solar cell is promising for future energy conversion technology. Most materials used in QDs sensitized solar cell were based on cadmium (Cd) or other toxic materials and heavy metals such as Pb and Sn[2-4]. Here, in this work, we employ Cd-free and low toxic colloidal binary InP and InP passivated with ZnS as an alternative for future eco-friendly quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). These QDs were synthesized by hot injection technique under nitrogen flow to avoid oxygen contamination. This is the first time that colloidal InP-Zns QDs are successfully employed as sensitizer in QDSSCs. It is found that InP passivated by ZnS shows down-shift in band gap energy, which is responsible for broader absorption. Higher power conversion efficiency of InP-ZnS QDSSCs compared to that of single core InP is attributed to broader absorption range and faster electron injection efficiency. Under light illumination, photogenerated electron in QDs is directly injected to conduction band of TiO2 substrate since the thickness of ZnS shell is constructed to be thin as much as possible to allow the electron injected to TiO2. Photogenerated hole is transferred to electrolyte to allow the QDs reset. Reference: 1. Oregan, B. and M. Gratzel, A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar-Cell Based On Dye-Sensitized Colloidal Tio2 Films. Nature, 1991. 353(6346): p. 737-740. 2. Jamshidi, A., et al., Efficiency Enhanced Colloidal Mn-Doped Type II Core/Shell ZnSe/CdS Quantum Dot Sensitized Hybrid Solar Cells. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2015. 3. Yuan, C.Z., et al., Improving the Photocurrent in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells by Employing Alloy PbxCd1-xS Quantum Dots as Photosensitizers. Nanomaterials, 2016. 6(6). 4. Yang, S.L., et al., InP and Sn:InP based quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015. 3(43): p. 21922-21929.

Authors : M. I. Hossain1; I. Zimmermann2; V. E. Madhavan1; N. Tabet1; M. I Helal1; Md. Khaja Nazeeruddin2; A. Belaidi1
Affiliations : 1Qatar Environment & Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar 2Institut des Sciences et Ingénierie Chimiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

Resume : Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with over 22% of power conversion efficiency (PCE) are attracting extensive interest in renewable energy to deliver low-cost electricity. These cells are composed of the transparent conducting layer (TCO), the electron transport material (ETM), organo-halide-perovskite as an absorber, the hole transport material (HTM), and a metal a back contact. In this work, we explored the possibility to develop efficient perovskite solar cells using inorganic n-type caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as ETM, which can be synthesized at low temperature (< 200 C) [1,2]. The work function of Cs2CO3 can be modified from 3.45 to 3.06 eV by an annealing treatment below 200 °C. The affinity for such material is around 2.8 eV. Also, the valance band level (Ev= 6.2 eV) could act as hole blocking layer (HBL) because of the perovskite Ev is 5.4eV. Aforementioned material properties make Cs2CO3 suitable to replace the currently used ETM which requires a very high-temperature processing. Also, both substrate and superstrate structures are possible to be prepared due to the low processing temperature of Cs2CO3. The optimum thickness of Cs2CO3 could be between1-5 nm. Solution process techniques were used to fabricate the devices. The films were structurally and morphologically characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD analysis showed the preferential growth of Cs2CO3 and perovskite layers. SEM results showed a full coverage of the films with fewer pinholes for perovskite layer only. Continues wavelength photoluminescence (PL) measurements, of perovskite films on Cs2CO3, showed a decrease in the PL intensity peak at 785 nm in comparison to the perovskite film on glass. This decrease may indicate that the charges created in perovskite films are injected in the Cs2CO3 layer. The I-V characteristics of the cells were carried out under 1-sun illumination. Promising results have been achieved for the cells Cs2CO3 (6 wt%)/Perovskite/Spiro with an efficiency of 8.14% (Voc= 1.023V, Jsc= 15.40mA/cm2, and FF= 51.7%), whereas, Without Cs2CO3 the efficiency did not exceed 5.25%. Very high open circuit voltage around 1.023V indicates the high quality of interfaces. Hence, it is possible to fabricate perovskite solar cells using Cs2CO3 as an alternative ETM. References: 1. Liao, H.H.; Chen, L.M.; Xu, Z.; Li, G.; Yang, Y. Highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell by low temperature annealing of Cs2CO3 interlayer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2008, 92, 173303. 2. Xin, Y.; Wang, Z.; Xu, L.; Xu, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, F. UV-Ozone treatment on Cs2CO3 interfacial layer for the improvement of inverted polymer solar cells. J. Nanomater. 2013, 2013, doi:10.1155/2013/104825.

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Fundamentals on transport : Marta Mas-Torrent
Authors : Alberto Salleo
Affiliations : Department of Materials Science and Engineering Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305

Resume : Typically semicrystalline conjugated polymers exhibit much higher mobility than their amorphous counterpart. The archetypal example is regio-random P3HT, with mobilities on the order of 10-6cm2/V.s as compared to regio-regular P3HT with mobilities on the order of 0.1 cm2/V.s. The oft-cited reason for these differences is the fact that in polymer crystallites charges delocalize and take a partial 2D character, enabling higher mobility. The amount of delocalization and how it depends on structure and processing is however difficult to measure. I will show that charge modulation spectroscopy in the IR with model materials allows to determine the delocalization of the polaron in P3HT when aided by theory. In order to extract systematic trends we will use 100% regio-regular P3HT of well-defined molecular weights (PDI~1.1). I will show how delocalization depends on molecular weight and substrate interface. Finally, I will show how polymers with the same backbone but different degree of delocalization due to side-chain chemistry give rise to different polaron signature and different carrier mobilities. Hence we are able to distinguish the effect of backbone straightening and delocalization induced by crystallinity.

Authors : Yves Geerts
Affiliations : Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/01 Boulevard du Triomphe 1050 Bruxelles Belgique

Resume : Charge carrier mobility, µ (cm2/V.s), is commonly used to benchmark organic semiconductors. Reproducible room temperature mobility values in the range of 10 to 20 cm2/V.s have been measured, in OFETs fabricated with single crystals of best performing molecular semiconductors. Importantly, mobility values increases when lowering temperature. This is viewed as an evidence of band-like transport. However, the charge transport mechanism operating in single-crystals is still under debate. I will report on recent results, obtained in close collaboration with G. Schweicher, J. Cornil, David Beljonne, P. Samori & S. Seki. We have observed that the 2,7-isomer of BTBT exhibits a peculiar behavior as compared to the corresponding 1,4-, 3,8-, and 4,9-isomers. In a nutshell, the 2,7-isomer has an ionization potential 5.3 eV, whereas the one of the other isomers is around 5.8-5.9 eV. This is rationalized by electrostatic effects but also by a much larger delocalization of charges in the 2,7 isomer. Charge carrier mobility measured by FI-TRMC ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 cm2/V.s for 1,4-, 3,8-, and 4,9 isomers. Surprisingly, the 2,7-isomer exhibits a mobility of 170 cm2/V.s. It must be stressed that FI-TRMC measures mobility at the semiconductor dielectric interface, like in a transistor, and that charges travel back and forth, under the influence of the microwave oscillating field, over distances on the order of 1-100 nm. FI-TRMC is a promising new method that allows to probe locally the intrinsic charge transport. Energetic disorder and dimensionality of electronic interactions appear as key concepts to understand the results. Experimental results have been rationalized by quantum calculations using band-like model.

Authors : Mario Caironi
Affiliations : Center for Nano Science and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milano, Italy

Resume : Polymer semiconductors with steadily improved electronic properties are being synthesized, achieving charge mobility in excess of 5 cm2/Vs for electrons and holes. Such performances are sufficient for a large range of applications of printed, light-weight and mechanically robust circuits, in diverse fields such as wearable electronics, smart packaging, and bio-electronics. Yet, charge transport properties in high mobility donor-acceptor polymer films is still under debate. In this presentation I will show the useful information that can be gathered on the nexus between film microstructure and electronic properties, and on the nature of charge carriers, in particular by combining electrical and morphological data with charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and microscopy (CMM), techniques which can selectively probe and map carriers at the buried semiconductor-dielectric interface in a working field-effect transistor (FET). In particular, I will show that CMS allows to reveal a neat two-dimensional charge transport regime in molecularly ordered, nanometers thin, Langmuir-Schäfer monolayers of an electron transporting polymer. In aligned polymer thin films, I will show how the interplay between transport in the ordered and more amorphous phases can determine charge transport regime, from purely temperature activated transport to temperature independent transport close to room temperature. As another example, I will show how local charge-modulation spectra recorded with a focused probe in different points of a polymer FET channel allow to distinguish genuine charge-induced spectral features from field-dependent spurious effects related to non-optimal charge injection, thus allowing a proper spectral assignment and a correct assessment of the nature of carriers. This allows to safely map the charge distribution of carriers in polymer FETs under different bias conditions, from unipolar to ambipolar accumulation regime. CMM also enables the investigation of the specific spatial distribution of transition dipole moments associated with holes and electrons accumulation regime over the same film microstructure.

Authors : Dmitry R. Maslennikov(1), Andrey Yu. Sosorev(1), Elizaveta V. Feldman(1), Vladimir V. Bruevich(1), Ivan Yu. Chernyshov(2,3), Mikhail V. Vener(2,3), Oleg V. Borshchev(4), George G. Abashev(5), Sergei A. Ponomarenko(4), Dmitry Yu. Paraschuk(1)
Affiliations : (1)Faculty of Physics and International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow 119991, Russia; (2)Department of Quantum Chemistry, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047, Russia; (3)Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prosp. 31, Moscow 119991, Russia; (4)Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Science, Profsoyuznaya 70, Moscow 117393, Russia; (5)Institute of Technical Chemistry Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Koroleva st., 3, Perm 614013, Russia

Resume : One of the most important factors limiting electrical mobility in organic semiconductors (OSC) is strong electron-phonon coupling, which makes charge transport very sensitive to inter- and intramolecular vibrations. Specifically, low-frequency vibrations were predicted to control coherent (band-like) charge transport in high mobility OSC [1,2]. In this work, we applied Raman spectroscopy to study the impact of electron-phonon coupling on charge transport in high mobility OCS. We derived a relation between Raman intensity and the contribution of vibrational modes to local and non-local electron-phonon coupling. As a result, we formulated a figure-of-merit (FOM) for the search of OSC with weak non-local electron-phonon coupling and hence having potentially high carrier mobility. We measured FOM for a series of high-mobility OSС and found that it clearly correlates with the charge intrinsic mobility. Moreover, the FOM temperature dependence also correlates with that of charge mobility. We anticipate that the proposed approach enables an easy and practical way for fast search of high mobility OSC prior their studies in electronic devices. The authors acknowledge funding from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects #16-32-60204 mol_a_dk, #17-02-00841). [1] I.Y. Chernyshov et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 8 (2017) 2875-2880. [2] S. Illig et al., Nat. Commun., 7 (2016) 10.

Electronic processes at interfaces : Beatrice Fraboni
Authors : Jérôme Cornil
Affiliations : University of Mons

Resume : We will review some of our recent theoretical works evidencing pinning effects at interfaces made of organic semiconductors covalently bonded to metals or oxides. Pinning implies that the HOMO or LUMO levels of related molecules (for instance oligomers of growing size or a given conjugated backbone with different electroactive substituents) are aligned in a very similar way with respect to the Fermi level of the substrate although the energies of these levels strongly vary in the isolated systems. We will show that the efficiency of pinning is strongly connected to the strength of the hybridization between the orbitals of the atoms forming the substrate and the orbitals of the atoms forming the anchoring group of the molecular part.

Authors : Naresh B. Kotadiya, Hao Lu, Anirban Mondal, Yutaka Ie, Denis Andrienko, Paul W. M. Blom, and Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer
Affiliations : Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany; The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan

Resume : Barrier-free (ohmic) contacts are a key requirement for efficient organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and field-effect transistors. Here, we propose a simple and robust way of forming an ohmic hole contact on organic semiconductors with a high ionization energy (IE). The injected hole current from high work function metal-oxide electrodes is improved by more than an order of magnitude by using an interlayer for which the sole requirement is that it has a higher IE than the organic semiconductor. Insertion of the interlayer results in electrostatic decoupling of the electrode from the semiconductor and realignment of the Fermi level with the IE of the organic semiconductor. The ohmic-contact formation is illustrated for a number of material combinations and solves the problem of hole injection into organic semiconductors with a high IE of up to 6 eV.

Authors : Denis Andrienko
Affiliations : Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128, Germany

Resume : We show how inclusion of mesoscale order resolves the controversy between experimental and theoretical results for the energy-level profile and alignment in a variety of photovoltaic systems, with direct experimental validation [1,2]. We explain how this order and interfacial roughness generate electrostatic forces that drive charge separation and prevent carrier trapping across a donor-acceptor interface [2]. Comparing several of small-molecule donor-fullerene combinations, we illustrate how tuning of molecular orientation and interfacial mixing leads to a trade-off between photovoltaic gap and charge-splitting and detrapping forces, with consequences for the design of efficient photovoltaic devices. By accounting for long-range mesoscale fields, we obtain the ionization energies in both crystalline [3] and mesoscopically amorphous systems with high accuracy [4]. [1] C. Poelking, M. Tietze, C. Elschner, S. Olthof, D. Hertel, B. Baumeier, F. Wuerthner, K. Meerholz, K. Leo, D. Andrienko, Nature Materials, 14, 434, 2015 [2] C. Poelking, D. Andrienko, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 137, 6320, 2015 [3] M. Schwarze, W. Tress, B. Beyer, F. Gao, R. Scholz, C. Poelking, K. Ortstein, A. A. Guenther, D. Kasemann, D. Andrienko, K. Leo, Science, 352, 1446, 2016 [4] C. Poelking, D. Andrienko J. Chem. Theory Comput., 12, 4516, 2016

Authors : Gabriele D’Avino, Jing Li, Ivan Duchemin, David Beljonne, Xavier Blase
Affiliations : Institut Néel, CNRS & UGA, Rue des martyrs 25, F-38042 Grenoble, France INAC, SP2M/L_Sim, CEA & UGA, cedex 09, F-38054 Grenoble, France University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, BE-7000 Mons, Belgium

Resume : We investigate the mechanism for molecular doping in organic semiconductors with a combination of state-of-the-art many-body techniques (GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms coupled to atomistic polarizable models)[1,2] and a carefully parametrized model Hamiltonian. Our accurate calculations show that in typical molecular p-type semiconductors (e.g, pentacene or alpha-NPD) the dopant acceptor levels lies very deep into the gap, also for strongly electron withdrawing dopants such as F4TCNQ or F6TCNNQ. Nevertheless, the inclusion of the electron-hole interaction strongly stabilizes dopant-semiconductor charge transfer states and, together with structural relaxation (polaronic) effects, rationalize the possibility for room-temperature dopant ionization.[3] We further show that the electron affinity of dopant molecules depends on the host semiconductor, with differences up to 1 eV arising from intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Our findings reconcile available experimental data and question the relevance of the standard model implying shallow impurity levels, highlighting instead the importance of excitonic and polaronic effects for the ionization of dopant molecules. 1. Li, D'Avino, Duchemin, Beljonne, Blase, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 2814 (2018) 2. Li, D'Avino, Duchemin, Beljonne, Blase, Phys. Rev. B 97, 035108 (2018) 3. Li, D'Avino, Pershin, Jacquemin, Duchemin, Beljonne, Blase, Phys. Rev. Mater. 1, 025602 (2017)

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Bio-organic electronics and sensors : Beatrice Fraboni
Authors : Daniel Polak (1), George Sutherland (2), Andrew Musser (1), Neil Hunter (2), Jenny Clark (1)
Affiliations : (1) Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Sheffield (2) Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Sheffield

Resume : Singlet fission is the process whereby one photon creates two triplet excited states. If both triplet states could be harvested by a single-junction solar cell, the solar cell efficiency would increase by up to 1/3. There has been much academic and industrial interest in developing new materials for singlet fission, but to date no material has proved ideal. Carotenoids are the most widespread of the natural pigments, important for photosynthesis, vision, human health and industry (market value $1.2bn). Work on astaxanthin [1,2] (the pigment which colours lobsters) shows that carotenoids are good candidates for singlet fission sensitizers for solar cells: they have strong absorption and fast (<100fs) singlet fission, independent of energetic driving force. There are hundreds of naturally occurring carotenoids and each of them can form a range of different dimer or aggregate structure (eg H- or J-aggregates), making energetic matching to a high efficiency solar cell possible. To determine how carotenoid structure affects singlet fission, and how to exploit carotenoids as singlet fission sensitizes, we use model systems to create identical dimer structures of a range of carotenoids. The model systems are made of synthetic ‘maquette’ proteins that hold the carotenoids in a specific dimer geometry. I will show that singlet fission is surprisingly robust in carotenoids and does not depend on either the aggregate or intramolecular structure. I will discuss the pros and cons of using carotenoids as singlet fission sensitizers. [1] Musser et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137, 5130 (2015) [2] Musser et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, under review (2018)

Authors : Ohad Silberbush, Moran Amit, Subhasish Roy, Nurit Ashkenasy
Affiliations : Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel;The Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

Resume : The ability to de-novo design peptides (short proteins segments) to self-assemble into functional structures has attracted an extensive attention in recent years, especially towards their implementation in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Many of the self-assembling peptide sequences include charged amino acids, making the resulting nanostructures amenable to proton conduction. Motivated by the opportunity to employ this phenomenon in novel bioelectronic applications, the aim of the work I will present was to discover the structural factors that govern proton transport processes in these biomimetic structures. I will demonstrate that proton transport is enhanced significantly by the introduction of a single charged amino acid into the sequence of a heptapeptide that self-assembled into fibrils.* Moreover, I will show that acidic residues are more effective than basic ones in promoting proton-conduction of the peptide fibrils due to two orders of magnitude larger doping effect, and a threefold higher charge carrier mobility value. I will further demonstrate that the structural motif of the monomeric peptides has a critical impact on proton conductivity of their assemblies, as well. I will show that D,L a-cyclic peptide assemblies exhibit superior conductivity and better thermal stability than assemblies of linear peptides with a similar sequence. *Silberbush, O., Amit, M., Roy, S., Ashkenasy, N., Adv. Funct. Mater. 2017, 27 (8).

Authors : Micaela Matta [1], Marco José Pereira [1], Sai Manoj Gali [1], Damien Thuau [1], Yoann Olivier [2], Alejandro Briseno [3], Isabelle Dufour [1], Cedric Ayela [1], Guillaume Wantz [1], Luca Muccioli
Affiliations : [1] University of Bordeaux, France [2] University of Mons, Belgium [3] University of Massachussetts, USA [4] University of Bologna, Italy

Resume : The knowledge of the electromechanical response of organic semiconductors to external stresses is not only interesting from a fundamental point of view, but also necessary for the development of real world applications, ranging from mechanical sensors to wearable or biocompatible devices. The common interpretation of the electrical response of organic semiconductor crystals to mechanical stress relies on the assumptions that (i) deformation affects charge mobility mostly along the strained direction, and (ii) compressive strain increases mobility via a reduction of intermolecular distances and the associated increase of electronic overlap, with tensile stress producing the opposite effect. Here [M. Matta et al., Mater. Horiz. 5 40 (2018)] we demonstrate how this interpretation is oversimplified, by means of multiscale modeling predictions and experimental measurements. For the latter, an original configuration is adopted, where a single crystal field effect transistor is assembled on top of a flexible polymeric cantilever. In particular, our simulations reveal that uniaxial strain conditions can give rise to unusual responses, namely mobility hardly changing or even decreasing while compressing. Moreover, both calculations and experiments show that the electro-mechanical responses along the directions exhibiting higher mobility and closer packing are strongly coupled: if strain is applied along one axis, mobility strongly varies also along the other axis.

Authors : Ajoy Mandal1, S. Mandal1, S. Roy1, A. Ghosh1, S. S. Bag3, D. K. Goswami1, 2
Affiliations : 1 Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur – 721302, India 2 School of Nano Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur – 721302, India 3 Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati –781039, India

Resume : Peptide based molecules have shown to interact with charged molecules, like DNA and various polar molecules. However, charge transfer through peptide thin films is not favourable. As a result, fabrication of OFET using peptide molecules are not explored. We have attempted to fabricated peptide based organic field-effect transistors combining Pentacene molecules as one of the semiconductor channel materials. In this work, we fabricated ArTAA_Py-Py Pentapeptide - pentacene based bilayer organic thin film transistor for volatile organic compound (VOC) vapours sensor with selectivity and enhanced sensitivity. Ultra-thin ArTAA_Py-Py Pentapeptide molecules of different thickness were grown using spin coating on pentacene semiconducting films. The device designs are optimized to enhance the detection performance. We have studied the morphology of the films using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and also optical properties of the films were studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The gas sensing performances of different thickness devices were tested for different volatile organic compound (VOC) vapours relevant to environmental monitoring, such as, ethanol, 2 propanol and acetone at room temperature (RT). It was observed that sensitivity of OFET increased when reduced the thickness of peptide film. From literature we have seen that these VOCs are generally detected at higher temperature but it is indeed interesting to emphasize that we could able to sense those gases efficiently at RT. Additionally, the OFET based devices exhibit higher selectivity, enhanced sensitivity with comparably fast response time (~ 3sec) and recovery time (~4sec). Gas sensing results confirmed that ArTAA_Py-Py Pentapeptide based OFETs show excellent response towards ethanol gas at room temperature.

Authors : Oleksandr Mashkov, Mykhailo Sytnyk, Niall Killilea,Eric Daniel Głowacki, Wolfgang Heiss
Affiliations : Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 7, 91058, Erlangen, Germany, Oleksandr Mashkov, Mykhailo Sytnyk,Niall Killilea & Wolfgang Heiss; Energie Campus Nürnberg (EnCN), Fürtherstraße 250, 90429, Nürnberg, Germany, Oleksandr Mashkov, Mykhailo Sytnyk, Niall Killilea & Wolfgang Heiss; Laboratory of Organic Electronics, ITN Campus Norrköping, Linköpings Universitet, Bredgatan 33, 60221, Norrköping, Sweden, Eric Daniel Głowacki.

Resume : Photo(electro)catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) together with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have the potential to produce H2O2; a simple case for the creation of environmentally friendly fuels in high demand for today’s energy industry. It is therefore of great interest to create cheap and photo(electro)catalysts on large scales that can be applied without causing harmful pollution. Here we introduce small molecule organic semiconductors based on hydrogen-bonded pigments (epindolidione EPI and quinacridone QNC) as efficient photo-catalysts. Using thin films of either material as an electrode in a photo-electrochemical reaction led to H2O2 evolution with efficiency that outperformed all other previously described photocatalytic materials*. These results encouraged us to expanded the research: (i) Combining HER and ORR H2O2 evolution was achieved using colloidal nanocrystals with improved H2O2 generation rate as a result of increased surface:volume ratio (ii) Photo(electro)catalytic HER on thin film electrodes fabricated from EPI. Similarly, improving film fabrication to achieve higher surface area improved incident photon to hydrogen conversion rates for in this case (HER while applying 0V overpotential vs Ag/AgCl). Our research shows that conventional, nontoxic organic pigments common in our daily lives can be applied to efficiently create renewable energy via the reduction of O2 to H2O2 or H+ to H2. 1. M. Jakešová, et al. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2016, 26, 5248–5254

10:00 Coffee break    
Excitons and charge transport : David Cheyns
Authors : Gregor Witte
Affiliations : Faculty of Physics, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany

Resume : Despite the recent success of optoelectronic organic devices such as photovoltaic cells, the fundamental understanding of the involved photo-physical processes is still incomplete. This is mainly due to the complex microstructure of blends utilized in customary devices that hampers precise microscopic interface studies. Polycyclic aromatic molecules such as oligoacenes are versatile building blocks which form crystalline films and can also be modified chemically, e.g. by fluorination which turns the p-type pentacene (PEN) into the n-type per¬fluoro¬pentacene (PFP). By tuning growth kinetics and employing template effects, crystalline molecular films of defined molecular orientation and even selective polymorphs can be prepared. They allow for detailed excitonic studies of the various phases [1,2], while temperature dependent measurements indicate further a notable strain at the interface with inorganic supports [3]. For the case of PFP on alkali halides, it is possible to prepare hetero-epitaxial organic films, which allow for polarization and directional resolved optical measurements on individual crystalline molecular domains [4]. This enables in particular an experimental investigation of the correlation between molecular packing motifs and singlet-exciton fission processes. Using time- and polarization-resolved pump-probe experiments a pronounced exciton fission efficiency is only found along the crystalline direction where -conjugated molecules are slip-stacked [5]. In the last part, structural and optical properties of molecular acceptor/donor hetero-systems are discussed at the examples of PEN/PFP and PEN/C60. Using the concept of templated film growth again affords the realization of well defined molecular interfaces with different relative molecular orientations. While this yields highly oriented PEN/PFP hetero-stacks, either in standing or lying molecular orientation [6], evidence for the formation of Diels-Alder adducts between C60 and pentacene is found [7]. Time resolved luminescence and linear absorption spectroscopy are performed to explore the energetics and dynamics of charge transfer excitons at the interfaces [8]. [1] I. Meyenburg et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 3825 (2016). [2] T. Rangel et al. PNAS 115, 284 (2018). [3] L. von Helden, T. Breuer and G. Witte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 141904 (2017). [4] T. Breuer and G. Witte, Phys. Rev. B 83, 155428 (2011). [5] K. Kolata et al. ACS Nano 8, 7377 (2014). [6] T. Breuer and G. Witte, ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 7, 20485 (2015). [7] T. Breuer, A. Karthäuser, G. Witte, Advanced Material Interfaces 3, 1500452 (2016). [8] A. Rinn et al. ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces 9, 42020 (2017).

Authors : Muhammad T. Sajjad, Oskar Blaszczyk, Lethy Krishnan Jagadamma, Thomas Roland, Mithun Chowdhury, Arvydas Ruseckas, Ifor D. W. Samuel
Affiliations : Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK

Resume : Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are a promising solar technology because of their unique potential to give lightweight, flexible and low-cost solar cells. Devices with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of more than 10% are being regularly reported using bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device architectures.[1-3] Device efficiency depends on exciton harvesting (leading to charge generation) and charge extraction, and both these processes are very sensitive to BHJ morphology. Charge generation occurs at the interface between the electron donor and acceptor, and for efficient exciton harvesting the donor and acceptor domain sizes should be smaller than the exciton diffusion length (LD) which is typically rather short, about 5 nm.[4] However, small domains have a large donor-acceptor interface area which enhances the encounter probability of non-geminate charge pairs and charge recombination.[5] This means that for a given exciton diffusion length, as domain size is varied there is a trade-off between exciton harvesting and charge extraction. Developing a way of increasing exciton diffusion length would overcome this trade-off by enabling efficient light harvesting from large domains, which would then also give improved charge extraction. Here we controlled morphology, structural order and crystallinity of the active layer of two-dimensional small molecules named SMPV1 and DR3TBDT by solvent vapor annealing. We found an enhancement in both the exciton diffusion length and also in the domain size. This engineered increase of the exciton diffusion length in combination with the larger domain size leads to efficient light harvesting and charge extraction, and hence a substantial (20%) increase in device efficiency. In both molecules, carbon disulfide (CS2) shows the most promising results, with more than three-fold enhancement in exciton diffusion coefficient (D) and two-fold enhancement in exciton diffusion length. The optimized CS2 annealed devices consistently show a PCE between 7.0 and 7.7%, and a charge extraction efficiency above 80% at short circuit conditions which is enabled by a large average domain size of about 30 nm. Large domain size would normally reduce exciton harvesting but in our case higher device efficiency is obtained because of the increase in exciton diffusion length. Our results suggest that larger domains are preferential in photovoltaic blends provided that sufficiently long exciton diffusion is achieved. Hence we show that control of processing conditions can enhance both exciton diffusion length and domain size in organic semiconductors blends. [1] S. Zhang, L. Ye, J. Hou, Adv. Energy Mater. 2016, 6, 1502529. [2] J. Zhao, Y. Li, G. Yang, K. Jiang, H. Lin, H. Ade, W. Ma, H. Yan, Nat. Energy 2016, 1, 15027. [3] L. Lu, T. Zheng, Q. Wu, A. M. Schneider, D. Zhao, L. Yu, Chem. Rev. 2015, 115, 12666. [4] O. V. Mikhnenko, P. W. Blom, T.-Q. Nguyen, Energy & Environmental Science 2015, 8, 1867. [5] G. J. Hedley, A. Ruseckas, I. D. W. Samuel, Chem. Rev. 2017, 117, 796.

Authors : Junqing Shi[a], Anna Isakova[a], Abasi Abudulimu[a], Marius van den Berg [b], Oh Kyu Kwon [c], Alfred J. Meixner [b], Soo Young Park [c], Dai Zhang [b], Johannes Gierschner [a,b], Larry Lüer [a]
Affiliations : [a] Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies, IMDEA Nanoscience, Calle Faraday 9, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain. [b] Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. [c]Center for Supramolecular Optoelectronic Materials and WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, ENG 445, Seoul 151-744, Korea.

Resume : Solution-processable all-small-molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown dramatic progress in improving stability and photovoltaic efficiency. However, knowledge of photoexcitation dynamics in this novel class of materials is very limited. To fully exploit the design capacities inherent in small molecule chemistry, the elementary processes and branching yields must be known in detail. Here, we present a combined computational–experimental study of photoexcitation dynamics of a prototypical all-small-molecule photovoltaic blend, p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 as a donor and NIDCS-MO as an acceptor. Femtosecond spectroscopy data show that excitonic coupling is small and that the charge transfer states are localized, at first glance contradicting the high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and open circuit voltage (VOC) of this material. A target analysis of the femtosecond spectra yields exciton dissociation rates of 1/(25 ps) and 1/(100 ps) for the as-deposited and annealed blend, respectively. These rates are far slower than in typical polymer based organic solar cells. Still, internal quantum yields are high because parasitic quenching processes are found to be even slower. In the framework of semi-classical Marcus theory, we demonstrate that our system shows near-optimum energy conversion and charge separation yields, due to negligible activation energy for charge generation but high activation energy for charge recombination, allowing enough time to separate localized charge transfer states. We thus justify both the high internal quantum yields and the high open circuit voltage found in this system. Finally, we predict that highly efficient and stable low-optical bandgap systems can be realized by reducing the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor.[1] [1] J. Shi et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, 11, 211

Authors : Joshua Macdonald, Chris Bowen, Elizabeth Von Hauff, Enrico Da Como,
Affiliations : Department of Physics, University of Bath; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath; Physics of Energy, Department of Physics, Vrije University of Amsterdam; Department of Physics, University of Bath;

Resume : Poor performance in organic photovoltaics has often been accredited to the low dielectric function of organic materials impacting on poor charge separation. We have grown organic co-crystals of perylene-TBPA which undergo a phase change at 250K; while the low temperature phase has a typically low dielectric permittivity of 6, the value of the permittivity in the high temperature phase is substantially higher at 20 [1]. By single crystal x-ray diffraction, we show that perylene-TBPA exhibits a molecular reorientation of the acceptor molecule, TBPA, in the high temperature phase. The high dielectric permittivity originates from the large dipole of TBPA and its reorientation with the electric field, which disappears in the low temperature phase. Such a high permittivity is promising for applications in organic electronics and by analysing the material in both high temperature and low temperature phases it is possible for us to directly assess the relationship between the TBPA dipole reorientation and charge transfer dynamics in the material. Using optical reflectivity and time resolved spectroscopy at different temperatures, we show how the large change in dielectric permittivity is influencing the photophysics of this system, which is of potential interest for photovoltaics and organic electronics as a whole. 1. Harada, J., et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015. 137(13): p. 4477-4486.

Authors : Giacomo Londi, Rexiati Dilimulati, David Beljonne
Affiliations : Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Université de Mons, Mons, Belgium

Resume : Two small push-pull π-conjugated organic molecules have been studied in the context of their use as donors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar devices. In vacuum-evaporated solar cells SA321 showed a better power conversion efficiency (4.75%) with respect to TV38 (2.2%). Along with their electron-acceptor counterpart, i.e. a soluble PCBM fullerene, the SA321 molecule based photovoltaic cells have higher efficiency, irrespective of whether the active layer is solution-processed or vacuum-processed. It has been suggested that this improvement arises from improved exciton diffusion. With this study we want to depict the multilevel computational protocol designed to provide a theoretical rationalization for the SA321 and TV38 electronic and excitonic properties at the solid-state. In order to gain access to the morphology of these materials, we performed classical Force Field (FF) Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on the pristine SA321 and TV38 molecules. On these morphologies, we carried out Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and MicroEletrostatic calculations to evaluate, respectively the conformational and the electrostatic component to the first singlet excited state energetic disorder. Then, we evaluated the internal and external reorganization energies as well as the excitonic couplings between neighboring molecules that were injected into the energy transfer rate expression taken from the semiclassical Marcus theory. Based on these rates, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were performed which yielded the diffusion coefficient and the exciton diffusion length.

Organic Photovoltaics I : David Cheyns
Authors : Alexander Wagenpfahl, Clemens Göhler, Carsten Deibel
Affiliations : Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany

Resume : The current–voltage characteristics of semiconductor diodes and solar cells can be described by the Shockley equation. For real devices, the dominant bulk charge carrier loss mechanism can lead to a voltage dependent saturation current density. The latter can alternatively be replaced by a constant prefactor in combination with the introduction of an ideality factor ≠ 1 in the voltage dependent exponent [1]. However, real devices can also show shunt and series resistance, as well as extraction limitations due to low conductivities [2], which all influence the current-voltage characteristics and, indeed, the apparent ideality factor. It is clear that the ideality factor can only be a reliable figure-of-merit for devices if the contributions of the dominant recombination mechanism and other limitations can be distinguished. Here, we discuss under which conditions the ideality factor does contain information on the bulk recombination and to which extent the description of the ideality factor can be generalised to include extraction limitations. [1] K. Tvingstedt and C. Deibel. Adv. Ener. Mater. 6, 1502230 (2016) [2] Würfel, Neher, Spies, Albrecht, Nature Communications 6, 6951 (2015)

Authors : Armantas Melianas(1), Vytenis Pranculis(2), Donato Spoltore (3), Johannes Benduhn (3), Olle Inganäs(1), Vidmantas Gulbinas(2), Koen Vandewal(3), Martijn Kemerink(1)
Affiliations : (1) Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden; (2) Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Saulėtekio av. 3, LT-02300 Vilnius, Lithuania; (3) Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and Institute for Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany

Resume : In organic solar cells continuous donor and acceptor networks are considered necessary for charge extraction, whereas discontinuous neat phases and molecularly mixed donor-acceptor phases are generally regarded as detrimental. However, the impact of different levels of domain continuity, purity and donor-acceptor mixing on charge transport remain only semi quantitatively described. Here, we study co-sublimed donor-acceptor mixtures, where the distance between the donor sites is varied in a controlled manner from homogeneously diluted donor sites to a continuous donor network. Using transient measurements, spanning from sub picoseconds to microseconds we measure photo-generated charge motion in complete photovoltaic devices, to show that even highly diluted donor sites (5.7-10% molar) in a buckminsterfullerene matrix enable hole transport. Hopping between isolated donor sites occurs by long range hole tunneling through several buckminsterfullerene molecules (~4 nm). In addition, we find that at larger electric fields, a significant fraction of holes is extracted directly via the fullerene phase. Hence, these results question the relevance of ‘pristine’ phases and whether a continuous interpenetrating donor-acceptor network is the ideal morphology for charge transport.

Authors : Martin Schwarze, Karl Sebastian Schellhammer, Christopher Gaul, Reinhard Scholz, Katrin Ortstein, Carl Poelking, Denis Andrienko, Frank Ortmann, Karl Leo
Affiliations : Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden and Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden and Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany; Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden and Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany; Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany;

Resume : The working mechanism of organic semiconductor devices crucially depends on the precise energy level alignment of different organic layers. The transport levels in such devices directly correlate with molecular energies, namely the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA). However, a prediction of solid-state IE and EA values from molecular structures is challenging because they are sensitive to film morphology and composition. In a comprehensive photoelectron spectroscopy study on various small molecule semiconductors, we observe that changes in IE as a function of molecular orientation or mixing ratio in thin films are proportional to the π-π-stacking component of the molecular quadrupole tensor (Qπ), calculated within density functional theory. The results demonstrate how the underlying electrostatic interactions enable a precise energy level alignment at organic heterojunctions by tuning a single molecular parameter. We prove the relevance for device application by exploiting this effect in solar cells consisting of ternary mixtures of two donor molecules (ZnPc, F4ZnPc) and one acceptor molecule (C60). The open-circuit voltage can be continuously tuned with the mixing ratio of the two donor molecules [1]. Furthermore, the adjustment of Qπ of the donor induces an electrostatic gradient at the interface and alters the dissociation barrier of charge transfer states, reflecting in a change of the short-circuit current. [1] Schwarze et al., Science 352, 1446 (2016)

Authors : Junli Li, Jikang Liu, Xiang Cai and Guoli Tu*
Affiliations : Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China

Resume : Cathode Interface Modifications in Organic Photovoltaics Junli Li, Jikang Liu, Xiang Cai and Guoli Tu* Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China. Email: Keywords:vertically phase-separated, fullerene derivatives, cathode buffer layer, amphiphilic diblock, self-organization, organic photovoltaics Two interface materials based on functionalized fullerene derivatives were synthesized and applied in Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs). An amphiphilic diblock fullerene derivative C60-4TPB containing both hydrophilic ionic groups and hydrophobic fullerene group was spin-coated and a vertical rearrangement will be formed in the ultrathin layer after solvent vapor annealing. That is the C60 part next to the active layer and the hydrophilic groups attacted to ZnO, leading to enhancement of electronic collection and increased power conversion efficiency (PCE). Amination-functionalized fullerene derivatives named PCBDCU has also been applied as an additive in inverted OPVs with a structure of ITO/PTB7-Th: PC71BM: x% PCBDCU/MoO3/Ag. The device with 10% doping with PCBDCU can reach a PCE of 6.37% which is twice of binary devices without PCBDCU (3.20%). Solid alcohol 1-Pyrenemethanol (PyM) was introduced to modify the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer in the inverted OPVs as a cathode buffer layer (CBL). The PyM can modify the surface defects and improve the electron mobility of ZnO CBL due to the self-assembled of PyM on the ZnO surface for its hydrogen bonds and the conjugated structure in PyM. With a blend of PTB7:PC71BM as active layer, the device with ZnO/PyM CBL exhibited a notable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.26%, which is better than that control devices based on bare ZnO CBL (7.26%). After the addition of PyM, the device based on PTB7-Th: PC71BM exhibited a higher PCE of 9.10%, obviously improved from 7.79% in control devices.

Authors : Amélie Robitaille, Samson A. Jenekhe, Mario Leclerc
Affiliations : Université Laval, University of Washington

Resume : For organic electronic applications, π-conjugated polymers have many advantages over their inorganics counterpart, such as easily modulated optoelectronic properties, solubility in organic solvents and mechanical properties of plastics. This synergy enables the possibility to develop efficient, flexible and lightweight devices using low-cost and large-area roll-to-roll printing. The fabrication of organic electronic devices is effectively cheaper and more environment friendly than of inorganic ones. However, some drawbacks remain in such devices due to synthetic procedures used to obtain many of the polymers used. To reach the low-cost and eco-friendly potential of organic electronics, the direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP) is a solution. Not only does this technique reduce the number of synthetic steps via the formation of C-C bonds between (hetero)arenes and (hetero)aryl halides without organometallics intermediates, it also has the capacity to achieve high molecular weight and high-performing materials and with optimized conditions defect-free polymers are achievable. Here, we present a high-molecular weight PNDIOD-T2 via a DHAP which had demonstrated better performances than analog from Stille coupling, the commercial polymer N2200. It is shown that with air-aging of the active layer (PBDB-T:PNDIOD-T2 ) of inverted all-polymer solar cells, a PCE of 7,3% have been achieved without the utilization of additives which is encouraging for large-scale production.

Organic and hybrid photovoltaics : Enrico Da Como
Authors : M. Zellmeier1, S.Janietz2, N.H. Nickel1, and J. Rappich1
Affiliations : 1 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium-Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, 12489 Berlin, Germany 2Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung (IAP), Abteilung Polymere und Elektronik, Geiselbergstr. 9, 14476 Potsdam, Germany

Resume : We investigated the influence of the emitter (amorphous-Si, a-Si, or polythiophene derivatives: poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and poly(3-[3,6-dioxaheptyl]-thiophene), P3DOT) and the interface passivation (intrinsic a-Si or SiOX and methyl groups or SiOX) on the c-Si based 1 × 1 cm2 planar heterojunction solar cell parameters. We observed higher short circuit currents for the P3HT or P3DOT/c-Si solar cells than those obtained for a-Si/c-Si devices, independent of the interface passivation. The cause is investigated using EQE and UV/Vis measurements. The maximum power conversion efficiency, PCE, was 11% for the P3DOT/SiOX/c-Si heterojunction solar cell. The best performing hybrid heterojunction solar cells reached an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 659 mV with the layer combination P3DOT/SiOX/c-Si due to improved wetting on SiOX of the hydrophilic 3,6-dioxaheptyl side chains of the polymer. This value is among the highest reported for c-Si/polythiophene devices. The reason for this surprisingly high VOC was investigated using wafer lifetime in combination with surface photovoltage measurements, which reveal a field effect passivation in the wafer induced by the polymer emitter. Additionally, the influence of the contact layers is examined and discussed.

Authors : Chao ZHAO, Peter HO
Affiliations : National University of Singapore

Resume : Achieving ohmic contacts in organic solar cell is key to maximising the power conversion efficiency and operational stability. One approach is to employ electrodes with Fermi levels well-matched to the respective band edges of the adjacent photoactive layer. PEDT:PSSH and low work function metal have been important work-horses for hole and electron collection respectively but the work function of PEDT, in particular, is not sufficiently deep for many of the state-of-the-art donor polymers with ionisation energies approaching 5 eV or deeper. Inverted cells using evaporated MoOx and solution-processed metal oxides for hole and electron collection, respectively, have often been used to overcome this limitation. However, the work function of MoOx quickly degrades in ambient and thus limiting the use of MoOx to top contact. Here, we show both standard and inverted devices with ultrahigh work function (>5.2eV) self-compensated p-doped polymers as HCL1 and in-situ activated ultralow work function (<3.5eV) self-compensated n-doped polymers at ECL. All solution-processing in ambient has been demonstrated. The devices further revealed that work function control is key to optimisation of the cell parameters. 1. C.G. Tang, M.C.Y. Ang, K.K. Choo, V. Keerthi, J.K. Tan, M. Nur Syafiqah, T. Kugler, J.H. Burroughes, R.Q. Png, L.L. Chua, P.K.H. Ho, “Doped polymer semiconductors with ultrahigh and ultralow work functions for ohmic contacts”, Nature 539, 536 (2016).

Authors : Sebastian Wood, James Blakelsey, Fernando Castro
Affiliations : National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK

Resume : The power conversion efficiencies of organic and perovskite photovoltaic devices continue to rise, but efforts to scale-up and commercialise have been frustrated by the twin challenges of defects and degradation, which limit their performance and lifetime. The characterisation of defects is a key experimental challenge, which we have addressed by developing a suite of complementary spatially-resolved techniques to correlate optical appearance, physical structure, chemical composition, and local electrical properties. This includes the novel technique of transient photovoltage/photocurrent mapping that provides unique insight into the natures of defects in terms of local charge carrier dynamics with ~50 μm resolution. In the case of solution deposited organic solar cells we use this method to distinguish light scattering defects, from defects inhibiting efficient charge extraction. Applying spatially resolved characterisation techniques in situ to operational devices enables us to monitor degradation processes, and by accurately controlling the stresses applied (environmental composition, temperature, light exposure), we are able to distinguish different degradation mechanisms. Mapping the photocurrent generation of organic and perovskite solar cells under stress enables us to correlate the overall loss in performance with specific local degradation sites and hence identify ways to improve the stability.

Authors : O. Fenwick (1,7), M. del Rosso (1), A. Liscio (2), M. Herder (3), F. Reinders (4), S. Rapino (5), F. Richard (1), F. Zerbetto (5), M. Mayor (4,6), S. Hecht (3), V. Palermo (2), P. Samorì (1).
Affiliations : 1 ISIS & icFRC, Université de Strasbourg & CNRS, 8 allée Gaspard Monge, 67000 Strasbourg, France. 2 ISOF-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy. 3 Department of Chemistry, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin, Germany. 4 Department of Chemistry University of Basel, St. Johannsring 19, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. 5 Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita' di Bologna, Via Selmi, 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy. 6 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany. 7 School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK.

Resume : Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are a well-used tool to modify the work function of metal electrodes in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in order to minimise injection barriers to organic semiconductors. There is a huge range of SAM-forming molecules available to either increase the electrode work function (for p-type devices) or decrease it (for n-type devices). However, interest in ambipolar materials for light-emitting OFETs, planar light-emitting diodes or for logic circuits necessitates injection of both holes and electrons at different electrodes on the same chip. Here we present a method to assemble SAMs of different molecules on adjacent electrodes by a process of chemisorption followed by selective electrochemical desorption of SAMs from one electrode, allowing a different SAM to be deposited on this electrode subsequently. With SAMs of decanethiol and pentafluorothiophenol (PFBT) we achieve work function differences between the differently functionalised electrodes of 1.4 eV. We follow this process by Kelvin probe force microscopy and UV and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and incorporate these electrodes into OFETs. Our technique is further extended to photoswitchable SAMs which allow optical modulation of the electrode’s properties. By making asymmetric pairs of electrodes with SAMs of different photoswitchable molecules we show a method to introduce multi-wavelength response to electrodes for OFETs.

Authors : Janardan Dagar, Manuela Scarselli, Maurizio De Crescenzi, Guido Scavia, Silvia Destri, Thomas M. Brown
Affiliations : 1. CHOSE (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy; 2. Dep. of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy; 3. CNR – ISMAC (Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole ) via Corti 12, 20133 Milan Italy.

Resume : Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was successfully incorporated as a nano-layer at the interface between the indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrode and the photoabsorbing polymer blend film in organic solar cells. An initial strong improvement in open circuit voltage (from 0.39V to 0.73V) and power conversion efficiencies (PCE from 2% to 5%) was obtained by spin casting a 1-6 nm thick DNA electron extracting layer (EEL) [1]. Subsequently, we reached state of the art efficiencies of 8.3% by developing metal oxide/DNA composites as EELs leading to solar cells that are better than those with only metal oxide (i.e. ZnO) or DNA interlayers alone, and even with PEIE analogues [2]. We also succeeded in transferring this device structure on plastic substrates (PET/ITO), with similar results, as well as in perovskite solar cells. Via Kelvin probe, atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that the DNA nanolayer improves the rectifying ratio and shunt resistance of the cells, as well as lowering the work function of the electron-collecting contact via the formation of an interfacial dipole. DNA layers were deposited in benign water/alcohol solvents at room temperature. These results show that natural materials, in this case DNA, can be incorporated in bio-hybrid organic semiconductor devices delivering uncompromising and even improved levels of performance. [1] J. Dagar et al. ACS Energy Lett.1, 510 (2016). [2] J. Dagar et al., Nanoscale, 9, 19031 (2017).

Authors : Hakan Usta, Gökhan Demirel, Antonio Facchetti
Affiliations : Hakan Usta (Abdullah Gül University, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering); Gökhan Demirel (Gazi University, Department of Chemistry); Antonio Facchetti (Northwestern University, Department of Chemistry)

Resume : π-Conjugated functional organic materials are envisioned as essential components of next-generation optoelectronic devices such as flexible displays, low-cost solar panels, electronic papers, printable RFID tags, and molecular sensors. These new technologies are expected to revolutionize the role of electronics in everyday life and complement current inorganic-based optoelectronic devices that have greatly impacted our society starting from the second half of the 20th century. To this end, the theoretical design and synthetic tailoring of π-conjugated architectures have been very crucial to optimize the physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of organic materials for a particular application. Herein, we demonstrate that thin-films prepared from properly designed organic semiconductors form favorable nanostructures, which can be used for a variety of organic optoelectronic applications ranging from surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)(1) platforms to bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics (OPVs)(2). 1. M. Yilmaz, E. Babur, M. Özdemir, R. L. Gieseking, Y. Dede, U. Tamer, G. C. Schatz,* A. Facchetti,* H. Usta,* G. Demirel* Nature Materials, 2017, 16, 918–924. 2. M. Ozdemir, S. W. Kim, H. Kim, M.-G. Kim, B. J. Kim*, C. Kim*, H. Usta* Advanced Electronic Materials, 2017, Online Early View (DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201700354).

Authors : A. Ciavatti1, L. Basiricò1, T. Cramer1, P. Cosseddu2, A. Bonfiglio2, B. Fraboni1
Affiliations : 1University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Italy; 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Italy

Resume : Organic semiconductors combine efficient charge transport with low-temperature deposition and large-area processing on flexible substrates, making them a promising class of materials for the new generation of ionizing radiation detectors. However, high-energy photon absorption is challenging as organic materials are constituted of atoms with low atomic numbers. Two approaches are here reported to increase the X-ray sensitivity. One is the development of an organic thin-film based, fully flexible, direct X-ray detectors, with sensitivity values up to several hundreds of nC/Gy at ultra-low bias of 0.2 V[1,2]. Such large sensitivity values in organic semiconductors are possible due to a photoconductive gain effect, that increases the amount of charge measured by a factor of up to 5 x 104 for each photogenerated charge carrier. We propose bulk doping by X-ray generated trapped electronic charges as the microscopic origin of the photoconductive gain. The second approach is to blend organic material with high-Z nanoparticles (NPs) to obtain a high X-ray stopping power and sensitivity[3]. The combination of both strategies is showed in the photoconversion processes in direct X-ray radiation detectors based on the semiconducting polymer poly(9,9-dioctyfluorene) blended with Bi2O3 NPs[4]. When operated in reverse bias, the detectors reach the state of the art sensitivity of 24 μC/Gy/cm2, providing a fast photoresponse. In forward operation, a slower detection dynamics but improved sensitivity (up to 450±150 nC/Gy) due to photoconductive gain is observed. [1] L. Basiricò et al., Nat. Comm. 7, 13063, 2016. [2] S. Lai et al., Adv. Electron. Mater., 1600409, 2017. [3] C.A. Mills et al., J. Phys. Appl. Phys., 46, 275102, 2013. [4] A. Ciavatti et al. App.Phys.Lett., 111, 183301, 2017.


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Symposium organizers
Beatrice FRABONIUniversity of Bologna

Department of Physics and Astronomy viale Berti Pichat 6/2 40127 Bologna Italy

+39 051 2095806

Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium

+32 16 28 8588
Enrico DA COMOUniversity of Bath

Claverton Down, BA2 7AY, Bath, UK

+44 1225 384368
Marta MAS-TORRENTInstitut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC)

08193 Bellaterra, Spain

+34 935801853