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Substitution and recycling of critical raw materials in optoelectronic, magnetic and energy devices - II

Following the successful edition in 2016, the Symposium is devoted to academic and industrial partners working on the substitution and recyclability of critical raw materials (CRM) in electronic, magnetic and energy harvesting devices. The objective is to strengthen the synergies in this community and promote the development of new efficient CRM-free/lean devices.


Raw materials are the basic, but fundamental, elements for a wealth of current technological applications. However, some of these materials have been recently defined by the EU commission as “critical” due to the high risk of supply shortage expected in the next 10 years and for their importance to the European industry. Thus, their (total or partial) substitution and recycling are essential for Europe’s economy.

Many technologies with a high impact on the quality of life rely on critical raw materials (CRMs) as key elements, from lighting devices (LED, OLED, CFL: rare earths, like Ce, Y, Eu and Tb, In  as CRMs) to energy harvesting devices (transparent conductive layers, solar absorbers), permanent magnets (SmCo, NdFeB), catalytic converters, electrode catalysts in fuel cells [Pt group metals (PGM) and Rh-based catalysts] and rechargeable batteries (rare earths, graphite, Co, Li and Ni as CRMs). New research and development activities are required to improve the fundamental understanding of new material solutions containing reduced or no critical content while maintaining or enhancing the performance of the materials, components and products. The design of the alternatives compounds, the control of growth process coupled with accurate characterization are mandatory for further development of new CRM-free/lean devices.

The symposium provides an interdisciplinary platform to discuss about CRM alternatives from the modelling, synthesis, characterization, processing and device integration viewpoints. Bringing together researchers from academia and industry we aim at increasing the interaction among scientists, engineers, and students working on different areas of the CRM field that are too often treated separately. The symposium is organized by members of the EIP RESET commitment, and will therefore be included and publicised within the program of activities of the commitment.

Hot topics to be covered by the symposium:

Materials Science, Design, Synthesis, Growth, Characterization of Advanced Materials with reduced or free from Critical Raw Materials for :

  • Transparent conductive layers
  • Phosphors for LED applications, Scintillators, Displays
  • OLEDs
  • Catalysis
  • Solar: photovoltaics, photocatalysis
  • Smart windows
  • Hydrogen storage materials
  • Exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets with less or no rare earths
  • New RE-free/lean highly anisotropic magnetic materials
  • Recycling of critical raw materials

Invited speakers:

  • Alberto López-Ortega, CIC-Nanogune Consolider (San Sebastián, Spain): “Strongly Exchange Coupled Core|Shell Nanoparticles with High Magnetic Anisotropy: A Strategy Toward Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets
  • Oliver Gutfleisch, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany): “Towards high-performance permanent magnets without rare earths
  • Philippe Smet, University of Gent (Belgium): “Are alternatives needed for the workhorses Eu2+ and Ce3+ in phosphor converted LEDs?
  • Paolo Mele, Muroran Institute of Technology (Japan): “Development of nanostructured ZnO thin films for thermoelectric harvesting

The list will be further adjusted and integrated by invited talks selected from outstanding submitted oral contributions, preferentially chosen among younger researchers.

Scientific committee:

  • Roland Mathieu (Uppsala University, Sweden)
  • Peter Normile (UCLM, Spain)
  • Davide Peddis (CNRS, Italy)
  • Daniel Salazar (BCMaterials, Spain)
  • Alexander Buckow (Fraunhofer ISC, Germany)
  • Josep Nogués (ICN2, Spain)
  • Su Seong Lee (Singapore)
  • Alberto Bollero (IMDEA, Spain)
  • Per Nordblad (Sweden)
  • Pablo Muñiz (UCLM, Spain)
  • Tamio Endo (Japan)
  • Ester Vázquez (UCLM, Spain)
  • Maria Luisa Grilli (ENEA, Italy)
  • M. Cannas (University of Palermo, Italy)
  • M. L. Ruello (University of Marche, Italy)
  • Sebastiano Garroni (University of Burgos, Spain)
  • Riccardo Corpino (University of Cagliari, Italy)
  • Etienne Bouyer (CEA, France)
  • Santiago Cuesta-Lopez (University of Burgos, Spain)
  • Davide Prosperi (Urban Mining, USA)
  • Miha Zakotnik (Urban Mining, USA)
  • Rocco Lagioia  (ITRB Consulting)
  • Dario della Sala (ENEA, Italy)
  • J.-P. Vilcot (CNRS, France)
  • M.-P. Besland (CNRS, France)
  • S. Binetti (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy)
  • Christian Hegelueken (Umicore, Belgium)
  • Wilfried Favre (CEA, France)
  • Joao Pedro Veiga (University of Lisboa, Portugal)
  • Guido  Sonnemann (University of Bordeaux, France)


The papers will be published in a special issue of Physical Status Solidi A (Wiley-VCH), to which all invited speakers will be asked to contribute.

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Authors : Alberto López-Ortega1, Cesar de Julián Fernández2, Claudio Sangregorio3
Affiliations : 1CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain. 2CNR-IMEM, Parma, Italy. 3INSTM and CNR-ICCOM, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy.

Resume : Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted a great interest in the last decades thanks to their novel fundamental properties emerging from their extremely reduced size. Special attention has been devoted to Co-ferrite (CoxFe3-xO4) NPs due to their cheap manufacturing and high magnetic anisotropy. In particular, the application of Co-ferrite in the realization of permanent magnet has attracted a renewed interest as an alternative to rare-earth base materials in low energy applications. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the structural, size-dependent and morphological effects on final magnetic properties appears necessary. Herein, we present the chemical synthesis of a series of Co-ferrite NPs with a broad range of particle sizes (from 4 to 60 nm). We evaluated the (BH)max product, the figure of merit of permanent magnets, obtaining the maximum values ever reported in the literature for Co-ferrite NPs (i.e., 2.1 MGOe). Moreover, In a second step, we have used these Co-ferrite NPs for building blocks of more complex heterostructures based on antiferromagnetic(AFM)|ferrimagnetic(FiM) core|shell (CS) particles. The CS structure has been generated by topotaxial oxidation of the core region. The sharp interface, the high structural matching between both phases and the good crystallinity of the AFM material have been structurally demonstrated and are corroborated by the robust exchange-coupling between AFM and FiM phases. These properties induce a huge improvement of the capability of storing the energy of the material, a result which suggests that the combination of highly anisotropic AFM|FiM materials can be an effective strategy towards the realization of novel Rare Earth-free permanent magnets.

Authors : Hyun Bin Kim, Seung Hee Choi, Jung Hyeon Yoo, Seok Bin Kwon, Seong Guk Jeong, Young Hyun Song, Dae Ho Yoon
Affiliations : School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, 440-746, Republic of Korea SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University(SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea Lighting Design & Component Research Center, Korea Photonics Technology Institute (KOPTI), Gwangju, 61007, Republic of Korea

Resume : Recently, all-inorganic cesium lead halide CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals(NCs) have drawn a lot of attention because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties such as high quantum yields (PLQYs), narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and tunability of their optical band gap over the entire visible light spectral range. Because of these outstanding properties, halide perovskite NCs are promising materials for light emitting devices. In this work, high quality green-emitting colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs were synthesized by the simple hot-injection method. In order to apply CsPbBr3 NCs for white LEDs, CsPbBr3 green film was fabricated with ethyl cellulose (EC). Synthesized perovskite NCs film are characterized to define crystal structures, luminescence properties, and morphologies. We optimized luminescence properties of CsPbX3 NCs for a white generation in the application of LEDs. We fabricated CsPbBr3 green film with ethyl cellulose having good mechanical properties.

Authors : Seong Guk Jeong, Seok Bin Kwon, Seung Hee Choi, Jung Hyeon Yoo, Hyun Bin Kim, Young Hyun Song, Dae Ho Yoon
Affiliations : School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea Lighting Design & Component Research Center, Korea Photonics Technology Institute (KOPTI), Gwangju, 61007, Republic of Korea

Resume : Solid-state lighting based on phosphor converted white-emitting diodes has gained considerable attention as a replacement for conventional incandescent and fluorescent light sources due to their advantages compared with their conventional counterparts, such as luminous efficiency, lower energy consumption, diversity of packaging forms, long operating lifetime, and environmental safety. The YAG:Ce3+ can be applied in various forms such as phosphor in resins, the phosphor in silicone and phosphor in the glass, but these are not thermally stable. On the other hand, polycrystalline phosphors have an advantage of good thermal stability. Therefore, studies on polycrystalline phosphors are under way. YAG:Ce3+ ceramic phosphor plate (CPP) improved both yellow-ring phenomenon and the light-extraction efficiency Because of Al2O3 particle embedded in the cubic YAG:Ce3+ CPP as the second phase. Also, the Al2O3 particle has a birefringence effect due to its hexagonal structure, and its scattering of the light reduces the yellow-ring effect. In this study, we prepared YAG:Ce3+ CPP with various amounts of Al2O3. The characteristics were investigated according to the addition amount of Al2O3 and optimized. The luminous properties of the YAG:Ce3+ and Al2O3 are improved when compared to the YAG:Ce3+ alone, and hence, the luminous emittance, luminous flux, and conversion efficiency are improved. We suggest that CPP is a next-generation material for solid-state laser lighting in automotive applications.


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Symposium organizers
José A. DE TOROUniversidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM)

Departamento de Física Aplicada & IRICA EIA, Ronda de Calatrava 7 13071 Ciudad Real Spain

+ 34 655 809482
Patrice MISKAUniversity of Lorraine

Jean Lamour Institute, FTS boulevard de Aiguillettes, 54510 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France

+33 (0)3 83 68 48 27
Pier Carlo RICCIUniversità di Cagliari

Dipartimento di Fisica Complesso Universitario di Monserrato S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700 I-09042 Monserrato (CA) Italy

+39 0706754821